TEKS  TAKS The Founding Fathers

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TAKS Objective 1, History. 8.4 The student understands significant political and economic issues of the revolutionary era. The student is expected to (B) explain the roles played by significant individuals during the American Revolution, including Samuel Adams, Benjamin Franklin, King George III, Thomas Jefferson, Thomas Paine, and George Washington..

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TEKS TAKS The Founding Fathers

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1. TEKS & TAKS The Founding Fathers This lesson studies important people in the revolutionary period of American history. There are three main categories of revolutionaries; those who agitated for revolution, those who fought for revolution, and those who founded a new nation after victory. Many of these founders can be placed in more than one category. Some in only one. Ask students think about each category as they review the information about the founding fathers.This lesson studies important people in the revolutionary period of American history. There are three main categories of revolutionaries; those who agitated for revolution, those who fought for revolution, and those who founded a new nation after victory. Many of these founders can be placed in more than one category. Some in only one. Ask students think about each category as they review the information about the founding fathers.

2. TEKS are organized into the following categories: Objectives Subobjectives Student expectations This lesson combines government and history objectives. This slide shows an example of a subobjective and a student expectation listed under that subobjective. Both are under broad Objective 1; History. TEKS are organized into the following categories: Objectives Subobjectives Student expectations This lesson combines government and history objectives. This slide shows an example of a subobjective and a student expectation listed under that subobjective. Both are under broad Objective 1; History.

3. TAKS Objective 4, Government 8.18 The student understands the dynamic nature of the powers of the national and state governments in a federal system. The student if expected to (A) analyze the arguments of the Federalists and Anti-Federalists, including Alexander Hamilton, Patrick Henry, James Madison, and George Mason. This lesson combines student expectations from two objectives. Most TAKS review lessons can combine student expectations from two or more objectives in cases where the content is similar or the same.This lesson combines student expectations from two objectives. Most TAKS review lessons can combine student expectations from two or more objectives in cases where the content is similar or the same.

4. Objective 5, Critical Thinking Skills Sequencing Categorizing Identifying cause-and-effect relationships Comparing Contrasting Finding the main idea Summarizing Making generalizations Drawing inferences Drawing conclusions Interpreting information from maps, graphs, charts, timelines Identifying points of view Identifying bias Objective 5 lists skills that students must use to organize and analyze the content objectives. These skills go far beyond rote memorization of content, asking students to think about and make sense out of the information.Objective 5 lists skills that students must use to organize and analyze the content objectives. These skills go far beyond rote memorization of content, asking students to think about and make sense out of the information.

5. George Washington Leadership Qualities Tall, commanding presence Symbol of American virtue Charismatic warrior and politician Abigail Adams said, “He has the dignity which forbids familiarity mixed with an easy affability which creates love and reverence.” One of the objectives of this lesson on Founding Fathers is to look at the qualities of different leaders of the revolution. This slide uses primary source material to briefly describe Washington’s character. Ask students to study the portrait and make inferences about the artist’s depiction of Washington’s character. One of the objectives of this lesson on Founding Fathers is to look at the qualities of different leaders of the revolution. This slide uses primary source material to briefly describe Washington’s character. Ask students to study the portrait and make inferences about the artist’s depiction of Washington’s character.

6. ...continued Public Life Land surveyor Early military experience Virginia House of Burgesses Delegate to the Continental Congress Commander in chief of Continental Army Presiding officer of the Constitutional Convention First US president and “Father of His Country” Another objective of the lesson is to study the background of the individuals who led the independence movement. On this slide students may see paintings of Washington during different periods of his life. The earliest picture is the one in the red vest, painted when he was in the Virginia Militia serving on the frontier in the French and Indian War.Another objective of the lesson is to study the background of the individuals who led the independence movement. On this slide students may see paintings of Washington during different periods of his life. The earliest picture is the one in the red vest, painted when he was in the Virginia Militia serving on the frontier in the French and Indian War.

7. Thomas Paine Immigrated to colonies shortly before Revolution Wrote Common Sense, a call to revolution, in 1776 Wrote ideas of revolution in simple language for all to understand His pamphlet, The Crisis, inspired the army to fight Unsuccessful in a variety of jobs, he died a penniless drunkard One of the earliest colonials to protest British policies, Paine wrote a pamphlet, Common Sense, calling colonists to revolt. It inspired many Americans to support revolution. Paine joined the army but soon quit. He was neither a part of the revolution itself nor of the settlement afterwards.One of the earliest colonials to protest British policies, Paine wrote a pamphlet, Common Sense, calling colonists to revolt. It inspired many Americans to support revolution. Paine joined the army but soon quit. He was neither a part of the revolution itself nor of the settlement afterwards.

8. Thomas Jefferson A Renaissance Man Political philosopher Architect Musician Book collector Scientist Horticulturist Diplomat & Linguist Inventor Politician Referred to his years as president as “splendid misery.” Information on this slide can be compared with information about Washington. Both were Virginians who owned plantations and slaves. However, Washington was from the Tidewater and Jefferson from the Piedmont . The lands of Tidewater Virginia were flat and fertile and productive. The Piedmont was less fertile and hilly. Therefore, Tidewater planters tended to be wealthier than those in the Piedmont. As a political philosopher and writer, Jefferson was asked to write a declaration of independence. In it he set forth new ideas based on the philosophy of John Locke. Those ideas stressed that all people were born with natural rights to life, liberty, and property. Jefferson returned to home and served as Governor of Virginia during the Revolution. As governor, he was not actively engaged in the fight for independence. After the war he spent several years in Paris as US envoy to France.Information on this slide can be compared with information about Washington. Both were Virginians who owned plantations and slaves. However, Washington was from the Tidewater and Jefferson from the Piedmont . The lands of Tidewater Virginia were flat and fertile and productive. The Piedmont was less fertile and hilly. Therefore, Tidewater planters tended to be wealthier than those in the Piedmont. As a political philosopher and writer, Jefferson was asked to write a declaration of independence. In it he set forth new ideas based on the philosophy of John Locke. Those ideas stressed that all people were born with natural rights to life, liberty, and property. Jefferson returned to home and served as Governor of Virginia during the Revolution. As governor, he was not actively engaged in the fight for independence. After the war he spent several years in Paris as US envoy to France.

9. Jefferson’s Tombstone Here was buried Thomas Jefferson Author of the Declaration of Independence Of the Statute of Virginia for Religious Freedom And Father of the University of Virginia Jefferson wrote his own tombstone inscription. He added “and not one word more.” Ask students to look back at Jefferson’s accomplishments and list those he omitted.Jefferson wrote his own tombstone inscription. He added “and not one word more.” Ask students to look back at Jefferson’s accomplishments and list those he omitted.

10. Benjamin Franklin As a printer he established the Pennsylvania Gazette and wrote Poor Richard’s Almanack Invented the lightning rod, Franklin stove, and bifocal glasses An accomplished musician, he played the violin, harp, and guitar As a scientist he was interested in electricity and the weather Students may compare the talents of Franklin and Jefferson. Both were writers, inventors, muscians, diplomats, and scientists. Students may compare the talents of Franklin and Jefferson. Both were writers, inventors, muscians, diplomats, and scientists.

11. …continued As a statesman and diplomat he signed all four important documents of the Revolutionary era: Declaration of Independence Alliance with France Treaty of Paris US Constitution The inset picture is from his newspaper and visually show what would happen if the colonies did not unite in their revolt against the British. Franklin signed the Declaration of Independence and negotiated the Treaty of Paris in 1783. He served as the US representative to France for several years and was a favorite of the French court and of the Parisian ladies. Franklin was the oldest delegate to the Constitutional Convention.The inset picture is from his newspaper and visually show what would happen if the colonies did not unite in their revolt against the British. Franklin signed the Declaration of Independence and negotiated the Treaty of Paris in 1783. He served as the US representative to France for several years and was a favorite of the French court and of the Parisian ladies. Franklin was the oldest delegate to the Constitutional Convention.

12. Samuel Adams Major early leader of the American Revolution: Led protest against Stamp Act Founded the Sons of Liberty Organized the Boston Tea Party Served in the Continental Congress Signed the Declaration of Independence Adams organized the early movement for revolution in Massachusetts. The Intolerable Acts were aimed specifically at the colony of Massachusetts and disrupted their economy as well as their colonial government. It was logical that the early movement for separation from the British Empire would begin there. After the early phase of the revolt in Massachusetts, Adams had no important role in the ongoing revolution and the settlement with the British.Adams organized the early movement for revolution in Massachusetts. The Intolerable Acts were aimed specifically at the colony of Massachusetts and disrupted their economy as well as their colonial government. It was logical that the early movement for separation from the British Empire would begin there. After the early phase of the revolt in Massachusetts, Adams had no important role in the ongoing revolution and the settlement with the British.

13. Alexander Hamilton Aide-de-camp to Washington Experience at Valley Forge brought him to feel that a strong central government was needed At the Annapolis Convention he drafted a call for the Constitutional Convention where he made the longest speech Co-authored with Madison the Federalist Papers States’ rights issue divided Madison and Hamilton Hamilton had key roles in the American Revolution, the Annapolis Convention, the Constitutional Convention, and served as the first Secretary of the Treasury. During the first years of the new nation he came to disagree with Jefferson on a number of issues; he was pro-British, Jefferson was pro-French; he was a “loose constructionist”, Jefferson was a “strict constructionist.” Aaron Burr, the Vice President of the US, killed Hamilton in a duel.Hamilton had key roles in the American Revolution, the Annapolis Convention, the Constitutional Convention, and served as the first Secretary of the Treasury. During the first years of the new nation he came to disagree with Jefferson on a number of issues; he was pro-British, Jefferson was pro-French; he was a “loose constructionist”, Jefferson was a “strict constructionist.” Aaron Burr, the Vice President of the US, killed Hamilton in a duel.

14. …continued Dramatic orator with personal appeal As Secretary of the Treasury he was responsible for establishing a policy of national credit and credibility Pay all foreign debts Pay domestic debts Assume state debts According to a contemporary, “The mighty mind of Hamilton would at times bear down all opposition by its comprehensive grasp and the strength of his reasoning power.” As a Federalist, he supported a strong Central government. Probably the greatest service Hamilton did for the new nation was to establish the credit of the United States by paying all debts, both domestic and foreign. The assumption of state debts strengthened the federal government. Hamilton believed that the US could not survive without a strong federal government. Probably the greatest service Hamilton did for the new nation was to establish the credit of the United States by paying all debts, both domestic and foreign. The assumption of state debts strengthened the federal government. Hamilton believed that the US could not survive without a strong federal government.

15. Patrick Henry A passionate and fiery orator who proposed the Virginia Stamp Act Resolutions As a lawyer he argued for broader suffrage Served in the 1st Continental Congress and as Governor of Virginia As an anti-Federalist, he strongly opposed the Constitution, favoring strong state governments and a weak federal government. Henry was an early leader of the revolutionary movement in Virginia. He served in the 1st Continental Congress, but was not actively engaged in fighting for independence. In contrast to Hamilton, Henry favored a weak central government and states’ rights.Henry was an early leader of the revolutionary movement in Virginia. He served in the 1st Continental Congress, but was not actively engaged in fighting for independence. In contrast to Hamilton, Henry favored a weak central government and states’ rights.

16. James Madison Served in the Virginia House of Delegates Served in the Continental Congress “Father of the Constitution” Sponsor of the Bill of Rights A Federalist supporter, he co-authored the Federalist Papers Secretary of State under Jefferson 4th president of the United States Virginian Madison and New Yorker Hamilton wrote a series of essays called the Federalist Papers to explain the features of the new Constitution. Their explanations helped in the ratification process. Madison kept detailed notes of the Constitutional Convention, earning him the title of “Father of the Constitution” by historians.Virginian Madison and New Yorker Hamilton wrote a series of essays called the Federalist Papers to explain the features of the new Constitution. Their explanations helped in the ratification process. Madison kept detailed notes of the Constitutional Convention, earning him the title of “Father of the Constitution” by historians.

17. John Adams Harvard law graduate Led Massachusetts movement for revolution Served in Continental Congresses Diplomatic service in Holland, France, Britain Negotiated Treaty of Paris 1st vice president and 2nd president Adams, a lawyer from Massachusetts, led the movement for revolution in Boston. As a founding father, he negotiated the Treaty of Paris in 1783. In that treaty, Adams and other representatives of the US managed to get the British to cede all lands between the east coast and the Mississippi River to the new country. This agreement opened all the lands west of the Appalachains for settlement.Adams, a lawyer from Massachusetts, led the movement for revolution in Boston. As a founding father, he negotiated the Treaty of Paris in 1783. In that treaty, Adams and other representatives of the US managed to get the British to cede all lands between the east coast and the Mississippi River to the new country. This agreement opened all the lands west of the Appalachains for settlement.

18. Treaty 0f Paris, 1783 This picture shows the representatives to the Treaty of Paris in 1783. Standing are the French and Spanish representatives. Seated are John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, and John Jay. The British sent a low-level diplomat who refused to have his picture painted with a bunch of ruffians. The artist shaded in the area where he would have been standing. This picture shows the representatives to the Treaty of Paris in 1783. Standing are the French and Spanish representatives. Seated are John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, and John Jay. The British sent a low-level diplomat who refused to have his picture painted with a bunch of ruffians. The artist shaded in the area where he would have been standing.

19. George Mason One of the wealthiest Virginia planters Protested Stamp Act Protested Intolerable Acts in the Fairfax County Resolves US Bill of Rights based on Mason’s Virginia Declaration of Rights As a delegate to the Constitutional Convention, he refused to sign the final document Supported Anti-Federalist position Mason’s contribution as a founding father was the Virginia Declaration of Rights. The Bill of Rights, amendments added after ratification, was based on Mason’s rights. Mason sided with Patrick Henry in refusing to sign the final draft of the Constitution. He, like Henry, supported states’rights and a weak central government. Mason’s contribution as a founding father was the Virginia Declaration of Rights. The Bill of Rights, amendments added after ratification, was based on Mason’s rights. Mason sided with Patrick Henry in refusing to sign the final draft of the Constitution. He, like Henry, supported states’rights and a weak central government.

20. George III Known as the king who lost the American colonies and went mad Surrounded by poor ministers whose primary concern was their own interests Strongly opposed the colonists’ revolt Many of the colonists’ grievances were against acts of Parliament not actions of the king George III was the target of all the grievances listed in the Declaration of Independence. Many were Acts of Parliament, not acts of the king. The colonists specifically blamed the king for instituting martial law, keeping standing armies in the colonies, quartering troops in private homes, and stopping colonial ships on the high seas. In other words, disrupting their lives, governments, and economy.George III was the target of all the grievances listed in the Declaration of Independence. Many were Acts of Parliament, not acts of the king. The colonists specifically blamed the king for instituting martial law, keeping standing armies in the colonies, quartering troops in private homes, and stopping colonial ships on the high seas. In other words, disrupting their lives, governments, and economy.

21. …continued John Adams said of the British: “The pride and vanity of that nation is a disease; it is a delirium; it has been flattered and inflamed so long by themselves and others that it perverts everything.” About the loss of America, George III said: “...that knavery seems to be so much the striking feature of its inhabitants that it may not be in the end an evil that they become aliens to this Kingdom.” Notice that Adams accuses the British of vanity and pride. George III accuses the Americans knavery (deceit and fraud).Notice that Adams accuses the British of vanity and pride. George III accuses the Americans knavery (deceit and fraud).

22. Resources: Where to Look http://socialstudies.tea.state.tx.us/downloads/ downloads.htm, click on TAKS Review Activities www.pbs.org/jefferson/enlight/ www.pbs.org/georgewashington/, Rediscovering George Washington, 90 min. www.ushistory.org www.irqpa.org/lphs/1948/4th/FATHERS.htm www.mountvernon.org www.gunstonhall.org/georgemason Teachers resources on the Web. Many of these sites will also list other related sites for pictures, etc. Teachers resources on the Web. Many of these sites will also list other related sites for pictures, etc.

23. Compare and Contrast the Founding Fathers below: Jefferson and Franklin Washington and Samuel Adams Patrick Henry and Thomas Paine Hamilton and Jefferson Use the following categories to compare and contrast each couple: Background; residence, profession, early experiences Role as Agitators for Revolution Role in Fighting Revolution Role in Establishing New Nation Philosophical Differences Use the following categories to compare and contrast each couple: Background; residence, profession, early experiences Role as Agitators for Revolution Role in Fighting Revolution Role in Establishing New Nation Philosophical Differences

24. Place the Founding Fathers into the following categories: Southern Planters (Tidewater & Piedmont) Lawyers Journalists/Writers Military Commanders Politicians Agitators/Radicals Diplomats Using the Founding Fathers in this lesson, place each in one or more of the categories listed above. Then ask students to compare and contrast. For example, Washington would be listed under Southern Planters, Military Commanders, and Politicians.Using the Founding Fathers in this lesson, place each in one or more of the categories listed above. Then ask students to compare and contrast. For example, Washington would be listed under Southern Planters, Military Commanders, and Politicians.

25. Inferences, Conclusions, & Generalizations Inferences about social status of revolutionaries Conclusions about the characteristics of people who bring about revolutions, those who carry out revolutions, and those who finish revolutions Generalizations about personal qualities of leaders of revolutions Inferences: Look back at information on Founding Fathers. Place each in Wealthy, Middle, Lower social class Conclusions: All revolutions appear to have similar characteristics. Certain types of people agitate for revolution, others carry it out, and still others take over after a successful revolution ends. Into which group do each of the Founding Fathers fall? Generalizations: Ask students to make generalizations about personal qualities of successful revolutionaries.Inferences: Look back at information on Founding Fathers. Place each in Wealthy, Middle, Lower social class Conclusions: All revolutions appear to have similar characteristics. Certain types of people agitate for revolution, others carry it out, and still others take over after a successful revolution ends. Into which group do each of the Founding Fathers fall? Generalizations: Ask students to make generalizations about personal qualities of successful revolutionaries.

26. What kind of test item??? Think of a multiple choice stem and answer-- Use one of the critical thinking skills Example: In which of the following categories would the... Which of the following quotes best represents... Based on the information below, what inference...

27. Ideas for Sequencing Lessons Using a Chronological Approach Colonization Independence Early Republic Westward Expansion Industrialization Sectionalism Civil War

28. Or... Using a Conceptual Approach People who Made a Difference Migration and Settlement Conflict and Compromise Economic Development The Constitution and Politics Wars and Treaties Geographical Influences Reformers and Change

29. Example: Chronological Organization Westward Expansion Lesson Titles: Areas Acquired to Form the U.S. Northwest Ordinance Manifest Destiny Mexican War Impact of Geographical Factors on Historical Events

30. Example: Conceptual Organization People Who Made a Difference Lesson Titles: People of the American Revolution Foundations of Representative Government Leaders of the Abolitionist Movement Technological and Scientific Innovators Leaders of the Civil War

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