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Protista: Algae and Heterotrophic Protist. Protista. diverse group of organisms , comprising those eukaryotes that are not animals , fungi , or plants . They are usually treated as the kingdom Protista. Algae. photosynthetic organisms that occur in most habitats.

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Protista l.jpg
Protista

  • diverse group of organisms, comprising those eukaryotes that are not animals, fungi, or plants. They are usually treated as the kingdomProtista


Algae l.jpg
Algae

  • photosynthetic organisms that occur in most habitats.

  • vary from small, single-celled forms to complex multicellular forms- giant kelp 65 meters in length.


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Algae

  • regarded as simple plants, they actually span more than one domain, including both Eukaryota and Bacteria (see Blue-green algae), as well as more than one kingdom, including plants and protists, the latter being traditionally considered more animal-like (see Protozoa).


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  • All lack leaves, roots, flowers, seeds and other organ structures that characterize higher plants (vascular plants).


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Algae

  • All algae have photosynthetic machinery ultimately derived from the cyanobacteria, and so produce oxygen as a byproduct of photosynthesis

  • algae produce about 73 to 87 percent of the net global production of oxygen


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Role in aquatic ecology l.jpg
Role in Aquatic Ecology because algae lack vascular tissues and other adaptations to live on land.

  • Microscopic forms that live suspended in the water column — called phytoplankton — provide the food base for most marine food chains.


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Ecology of algae because algae lack vascular tissues and other adaptations to live on land.

  • Play a role comparable to the role played by plants in the far young terrestrial world.

  • Dominant in freshwater habitats

  • Ponds

  • Streams

  • Lakes


Rocky shores l.jpg
Rocky shores because algae lack vascular tissues and other adaptations to live on land.

  • Seaweeds

  • Members of red, brown and green algae

  • At low tides can see distinct layers that can withstand large fluctuations of humidity, temperature, salinity and light


Offshore l.jpg
Offshore because algae lack vascular tissues and other adaptations to live on land.

  • Beyond the zone of waves massive brown kelps form forest

  • Provide shelter for diverse fish and invertebrate animals


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Phytoplankton because algae lack vascular tissues and other adaptations to live on land.

  • Plankton- minute photosynthetic cells along with tiny animals

  • Phytoplankton- photosynthetic algae and cyanobacteria

  • Phytoplankton is the beginning of the food chain for heterotrophic organisms that live in oceans of bodies of freshwater


Protista algae and heterotrophic protists l.jpg
Protista: Algae and Heterotrophic Protists because algae lack vascular tissues and other adaptations to live on land.

  • Dinoflagellates : Phylum Dinophyta

  • Euglenoids: Phylum Euglenophyta

  • Cryptomonads: Phylum Cryptophyta

  • Haptophytes: Phylum Haptophyta

  • The Heterokonts- oomycetes, diatoms, pyhaeophyta

  • Red Algae: Phylum Rhodophyta

  • Green Algae: Phylum Chlorophyta

  • The Slime Molds


Marine phytoplankton l.jpg
Marine Phytoplankton because algae lack vascular tissues and other adaptations to live on land.

  • Dinoflagellates- Phylum Dinophyta

  • Euglenoids: phylum

  • Haptophytes: phylum

  • Heterokonts- Oomycetes, Diatoms, Phaeophyta

    Most important eukaryotic members of the marine phytoplanton and therefore essential to the support of marine animal life


Algae and the carbon cycle l.jpg
Algae and “The Carbon Cycle” because algae lack vascular tissues and other adaptations to live on land.

  • Algae are able to transform carbon dioxide into carbohydrates or into calcium carbonate

  • Today phytoplankton absorb about One-half of all the Carbon dioxide that results from human activities

  • White cliffs of Dover- calcium carbon deposits “CO2 drawdown” effect


Dinoflagellates phylum dinophyta l.jpg
Dinoflagellates: Phylum Dinophyta because algae lack vascular tissues and other adaptations to live on land.

  • Molecular systematic data- Related to ciliated protozoa such as Paramecium and Vorticella

  • Unicellular biflagellates

  • Marine and freshwater

  • Some dinoflagellates are nonmotile

  • Reproduction- longitudinal cell division


Dinoflagellates l.jpg
Dinoflagellates because algae lack vascular tissues and other adaptations to live on land.

  • About half lack a photosynthetic mechanism

  • Ingest solid food particles (tubular process peduncle suction organic material)

  • Or absorb dissolved organic compounds

  • Many photosynthetic dinoflagellates can feed in these ways-

  • Mixotrophy- the ability to utilize both organic and inorganic carbon sources.


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Symbiotic forms because algae lack vascular tissues and other adaptations to live on land.

  • Zooxanthellae- responsible for the photosynthetic productivity that makes possible the growth of coral reefs in tropical waters


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Dinoflagellates produce toxic or bioluminescent compounds because algae lack vascular tissues and other adaptations to live on land.

  • Toxic glycoside released by activated dinoflagellate cysts

  • Paralyze the respiratory tract, dinoflagellates feed on fish then return to cyst stage


Euglenoids phylum euglenophyta l.jpg
Euglenoids: Phylum Euglenophyta because algae lack vascular tissues and other adaptations to live on land.

  • Earliest euglenoids were phagocytes

  • Mostly Freshwater

  • Contain chloroplast

  • Studies suggest that euglenoids were derived from endosymbiotic green algae

  • 2/3 are colorless heterotrophs that rely upon particle feeding or absorption

  • Euglena


Euglena l.jpg
Euglena because algae lack vascular tissues and other adaptations to live on land.

  • Unicellular

  • Lacks cell wall or rigid structure covering plasma membrane

  • Beneath plasma membrane pellicle

  • Swimming Euglena have a single long external flagellum

Eyespot


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Euglena because algae lack vascular tissues and other adaptations to live on land.


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Crytomonads; Phylum Crytophyta because algae lack vascular tissues and other adaptations to live on land.


Haptophytes phylum haptophyta l.jpg
Haptophytes : Phylum Haptophyta because algae lack vascular tissues and other adaptations to live on land.

  • Mostly Marine phytoplankton

  • Few freshwater and terrestrial forms are known

  • Unicellular flagellates, colonial flagellates, colonial flagellates and non-motile single cells and colonies

  • Haptonema- threadlike structure that extends from the cell and can help catch prey, and sensory


Phylum haptophyta l.jpg
Phylum Haptophyta because algae lack vascular tissues and other adaptations to live on land.

  • Most are photosynthetic

  • Marine haptophytes serve both as producers and even though most are autotrophic as consumers (each cyanobacteria)

  • Major part in the carbon cycle


Characteristics of haptophyte algae continue l.jpg
Characteristics of Haptophyte algae continue because algae lack vascular tissues and other adaptations to live on land.

  • Presence of small flat scales on the outer surface of the cell

Coccoliths

Calcified organic

material


The heterokonts different flagella l.jpg
The Heterokonts because algae lack vascular tissues and other adaptations to live on land. “different flagella”

  • Oomycetes; Phylum oomycota

  • Diatoms: Phylum Bacillariophyta

  • Brown algae: Phylum Phaeophyta


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Oomycetes; Phylum Oomycota because algae lack vascular tissues and other adaptations to live on land. “Fungus-like”

  • Heterotrophic

  • The water molds

    • Saprolegnia can reproduce sexually (heterothallic) and asexually (homothallic)

  • Terrestrial Oomycetes


Bacillariophyta diatoms and phaeophyta l.jpg
Bacillariophyta(Diatoms) and Phaeophyta because algae lack vascular tissues and other adaptations to live on land.

  • Autotrophic

  • Have chlorophyll and carry on photosynthesis (algae)

  • Bacillariophyta: The Diatoms

  • Phaeophyta: The Brown Algae


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Bacillariophyta: The Diatoms because algae lack vascular tissues and other adaptations to live on land. “algae that live in glass houses”

  • Unicellular or colonial organisms

  • Fresh and marine waters

  • Two types of diatoms based on structure

    • Pennate

    • Centric


Phaeophyta the brown algae l.jpg
Phaeophyta: The Brown Algae because algae lack vascular tissues and other adaptations to live on land.

  • Mostly Marine form

  • Abundant in cold ocean waters

  • Kelps- Laminaria, Postelsia, Macrocystis, Nereosystis


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Sieve tubes because algae lack vascular tissues and other adaptations to live on land.

  • Located within the phoelm

  • Transport of carbohydrates in the plant


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Xsec of blade because algae lack vascular tissues and other adaptations to live on land.

Fucus“Rockweeds”

Sporic meiosis


Red algae phylum rhodophyta l.jpg
Red Algae: Phylum Rhodophyta because algae lack vascular tissues and other adaptations to live on land.

  • Mostly marine form

  • Warm sease

  • Include “sea mosses”

  • Usually less than 10 cm long


Green algae phylum chlorophyta l.jpg
Green Algae: Phylum Chlorophyta because algae lack vascular tissues and other adaptations to live on land.

  • Class chlorophyceae

  • Class Ulvophyceae, The Ulvophytes

    • Mainly marine


The slime molds l.jpg
The Slime Molds because algae lack vascular tissues and other adaptations to live on land.

  • Phylum Myxomycota

    • Sporangium of Arcyria nutans

    • Sporangia of Stemonitis splendens

    • Plamodiocarp of Hemitrichia serpula

    • Aethalia of Lycogala


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