Primary and Secondary Resources Characteristics and Examples Primary Get as close to the original event as possible Books from the period, memoirs, letters, diaries Opinion polls, audiotapes Primary Sources on the Web Secondary Interprets or analyzes a historical event or phenomena
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Primary and Secondary Resources
Get as close to the original event as possible
Books from the period, memoirs, letters, diaries
Opinion polls, audiotapes
Primary Sources on the Web
Interprets or analyzes a historical event or phenomena
Reports of research, original theoretical writings, letters
Journal articles – reports of an experiment by the scientist(s)
Dissertations (Ph.D. research)
Reports of government agencies
Author generally has academic credentials
Extensive bibliography (which you might look up and use)
Used to back up the main points in your work
American Chemical Society Publications
Directory of Open Access Journal
A Physics and Astronomy Example
Writing about science but not by the scientist who did the experiment
Most web sites
Describes scientific concepts (acids, force, cells)
Used to provide background and clarify ideas
Explains the work of scientists or interviews scientists
Time, Newsweek, US News and World Report
Times-Union, New York Times
University sites – address ends in edu
Government sites – address ends in gov
Sites that just have the links and search results – these are not references
Just an ad
Three basic features signaling
Why do lion’s have manes?
Defence, signal quality
Practice with Sources – Write in your regular composition bookPrimary Source:West, Peyton M. (2005). The Lion’s Mane. American Scientist,93(3),226-235.
Three astronomical tests for relativity
Practice with Sources and Notes– Write in your regular composition bookSecondary Source:Fernie, J. Donald. (2005). The Lion’s Mane. American Scientist,93(5),404-407.
Primary science sources are characterized by __________________. An example is ____________________.
Secondary science source are different from primary sources because _______
The notes on _____________________ were an example of a ________ source because ___________________________________.