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Tung Chung-shu 董仲舒 ( 179-104 B.C.) Luxuriant Gems of the Spring and Autumn Annals 春秋繁露 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Tung Chung-shu 董仲舒 ( 179-104 B.C.) Luxuriant Gems of the Spring and Autumn Annals 春秋繁露 I. Tung’s position in the history of Confucianism:

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Tung chung shu 179 104 b c luxuriant gems of the spring and autumn annals l.jpg
Tung Chung-shu 董仲舒 (179-104 B.C.)Luxuriant Gems of the Spring and Autumn Annals春秋繁露


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I. Tung’s position

in the history ofConfucianism:

  • Establishment of the Confucian authority. Strong political motivations – to justify, stipulate, and limit the power of the new dynasty. “罢黜百家,独尊儒术”. Emperor Wu

  • His cosmological approach: Combining yin-yang and five forces theory with Confucianism – an isomorphic structure, mutual correspondence of heaven and human


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II. Isomorphic Correlation between Human and Heaven

  • Isomorphic structure of the microcosms and macrocosms 人副天數. (ch. 56, pp. 280-2)

  • Mutual correspondences between Heaven and human 天人相感 –Omens, abnormal phenomena as signals from Heaven. A conscious design of the Heaven?

  • A naturalistic account: dynamic correspondences in a synchronically correlated world. “Things of the same kind activate each other” 同類相動 (ch. 57, pp. 282-4) Causation.

  • Heaven gives birth to it, Earth nourishes it, and Humans completes it.Humans are the inheritors of Heaven. Humans form a trinity with Heaven and Earth. 天生之,地養之,人成之。 人其天之繼。人之绝于物而参天地 (p. 281)

    Not a pre-established harmony


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III. Imbedding Value into

Cosmology:

1. Yin and Yang

  • Yang corresponds to ren and yin to greed. “Heaven has its dual operation of yin and yang, and the person also has his dual nature of humanity (ren) and greed.” (p. 274)

  • “Yang is Heaven's beneficent power, while the yin is Heaven's chastising power." 「陽德陰刑」

  • The ruler relies more on virtue and less or not on chastisement 任德不任刑、尊德而卑刑

  • Three bonds: the ruler is the bond of the minister, the father is the bond of the son, and the husband is the bond of the wife. “三纲” -- 君为臣纲,父为子纲,夫为妻纲。 「五行順逆」


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2. Five Forces 「五行順逆」

The father-son relationship

From which filial piety and loyalty are derived

(p. 279)

Water

North

Metal

West

Earth

Middle

Wood

East

Fire

South


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IV. Theory of Human Nature• Human nature -- “Heaven has its dual operation of yin and yang, and the person also has his dual nature of humanity (ren) and greed.” (p. 274)Rice and rice stalk analogy.•Why restrict our nature? “There are cases when Heaven restricts the operation of yin and yang, and there are cases when the person weakens his feelings and desires.” “To restrict what Heaven restricts is not to restrict Heaven itself.” (p. 274) •The term “people” (min民) is derived from the term “sleep” (ming瞑) eyes can see (that is due to Heaven), but they need to be awakened. (p. 275)


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  • V. Hermeneutics: From Chronicle to Canon, A Confucian Way of Making Meaning

  • Chan’s comment on p. 274 and Roger Ames’ opposing view (in Confucius Now, ed. By David Jones, Open Court, 2008)

  • Paronomasia

    • 政 正 zheng (cheng)-governingzheng (cheng)-rectifying

    • 仁 人 ren (jen)-human-heartednessren (jen)-human being

    • 德 得 de (te)-virtue/virtuosity de (te)- to attain

    • 道 導 蹈 dao (tao)-the waydao (tao)-guidancedao (tao)-to put into practice

    • 君 群 jun (chün)-king, rulerqun (chün)-goup, gathering

    • 民 瞑 min-ordinary peopleming-sleep

    • 名 命 ming-name ming-order, ordering

    • 庸 用 yong (yung)-commonality yong (yung)-practice

  • One of the six principles of construction of Chinese characters: Phonetic loans

  • 1 Pictographs (象形), 2 Ideographs (指事), 3 Compound indicatives (會意)

  • 4 Phono-semantic compound characters (形聲), 5 Borrowed characters (假借)

  • 6 Phonetic Loans (轉注)


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  • Finding essence vs. delineating a world and bringing new meaning into being

    referential vs. relational (meanings can be delineated through insights about relations)

    individual vs. correlative thinking (making each more meaningful)

    fixed vs. creative (users are authors of meanings)


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  • Daily One-minute Paper meaning into being

    1. What is the big point you learned in class today?

    2. What is the main, unanswered question you leave class with today?


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