Tung Chung-shu 董仲舒 ( 179-104 B.C.) Luxuriant Gems of the Spring and Autumn Annals 春秋繁露 I. Tung’s position in the history of Confucianism:
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I. Tung’s position
in the history ofConfucianism:
II. Isomorphic Correlation between Human and Heaven
Not a pre-established harmony
III. Imbedding Value into
1. Yin and Yang
2. Five Forces 「五行順逆」
The father-son relationship
From which filial piety and loyalty are derived
IV. Theory of Human Nature• Human nature -- “Heaven has its dual operation of yin and yang, and the person also has his dual nature of humanity (ren) and greed.” (p. 274)Rice and rice stalk analogy.•Why restrict our nature? “There are cases when Heaven restricts the operation of yin and yang, and there are cases when the person weakens his feelings and desires.” “To restrict what Heaven restricts is not to restrict Heaven itself.” (p. 274) •The term “people” (min民) is derived from the term “sleep” (ming瞑) eyes can see (that is due to Heaven), but they need to be awakened. (p. 275)
referential vs. relational (meanings can be delineated through insights about relations)
individual vs. correlative thinking (making each more meaningful)
fixed vs. creative (users are authors of meanings)
1. What is the big point you learned in class today?
2. What is the main, unanswered question you leave class with today?