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China and Internet Censorship . Censorship 1 Maya Graham Lisa Moriyama Jill Peckarsky. Background. Censorship: suppression of information Propaganda: “generating (mis)information to counteract other influences” Internet censorship attempts like “trying to nail Jell-O to a wall”

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China and Internet Censorship

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China and internet censorship

China and Internet Censorship

Censorship 1

Maya Graham

Lisa Moriyama

Jill Peckarsky


Background

Background

  • Censorship: suppression of information

  • Propaganda: “generating (mis)information to counteract other influences”

  • Internet censorship attempts like “trying to nail Jell-O to a wall”

  • Viewed as threat to Chinese political authority


History of people s republic of china prc government control

Since 1949 (CCP takeover), has maintained tight control over forms and methods information is spread to people

Government to be only source of news & ideology

Monitors production & distribution of most newspapers, magazines, other news material

May 2001, members of book club arrested for holding meeting without permission

President Bush speech on religious tolerance in China edited by New China News Agency

History of People’s Republic of China (PRC) Government Control


Emergence of internet in china

Emergence of Internet in China

  • 1993 -- Government first to introduce Internet Protocol (IP) connections

  • Government initiative, “Golden Project,” connected Chinese ministries & other state venues

  • Used “Informatization” process to modernize economy & decentralize decision making

  • Officials closely monitored usage

  • Access only for scientists, academic community, & official government business


Access barriers

Access Barriers

  • Cost exceeded annual salary of most college educated professionals

  • Software/Internet in English; keyboard in QWERTY style based on Roman alphabet

  • All users required to register with federal police force -- require proof of ID and police file report form


1999 internet survey

1999 Internet Survey

  • Most Unsatisfied About China’s Internet

  • No issues relating to censorship of Internet

  • Echoes some access barriers


Power point 8789

“Provisional Directive on the Management of International Connections by Computer Information Networks in the PRC”

  • “Government in charge of planning & protocols for all international computer connections”

  • All international networked computer communications must go through network channels provided by Ministry of Posts & Telecommunications

  • Computer networks may not be used for any activities that might endanger state security or disseminate pornographic or obscene materials

  • “All networks are subject to administration and monitoring by one of four major state agencies”


Change in government motives

Change in Government Motives

  • Focus now on government efforts to limit what citizens (“netizens”) access online


Issues in academics

Issues in Academics

  • Universities encourage exchange of ideas while government blocks information on the Internet

  • Scholars who study abroad face problems when returning to China

  • Gao Zhan’s return to China


Internet caf s

Internet Cafés

  • Highly regulated

  • Feiyu Internet Café

  • “Underground” Cafés are more lax

  • Investigation into Internet Cafés from April to June 2001


Economics and the internet

Economics and the Internet

  • 1999 – World Trade Organization (WTO)

    • Opened China’s financial services to foreign investors

  • China must continue to move away from containment policy

  • Lack of E-Commerce

  • Non-Chinese Internet Companies

    • Targeting businesses


Conclusion

Conclusion

  • China needs an unrestricted Internet

    • Economic and academic growth

  • Despite regulations, usage growing

  • Membership in the WTO will help loosen controls

  • China losing hold over Internet – old solutions for new problems


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