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Post-Impressionism C.1879-1910 PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Post-Impressionism C.1879-1910 “The artist as himself” Impressionists held their last show in 1874- had gained wide acceptance (Monet was made a chevalier of the Legion of Honor by the French Government) No longer a pioneering movement “Post-Impressionism” doesn’t explain much!

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Post-Impressionism C.1879-1910

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“The artist as himself”

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  • Impressionists held their last show in 1874- had gained wide acceptance (Monet was made a chevalier of the Legion of Honor by the French Government)

  • No longer a pioneering movement

  • “Post-Impressionism” doesn’t explain much!

  • Describes artists who tried Impressionism, but were dissatisfied with its limitations- went beyond it but in dissimilar styles

  • Some thought that Impressionists were neglecting traditional elements of picture making

  • Wanted to carry the ideas of Impressionism further- were not anti-Impressionists- can see its influence in Post-Impressionism

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  • Paul Cezanne 1839-1906

  • Did not share Impressionist love for everyday scenes

  • Search for harmony of form and color- very disciplined application of paint- every brushstroke mattered

  • Put colors next to each other that created “chords” of warm and cool colors throughout the painting

Cezanne, Self-Portrait, c. 1879

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Cezanne, Still-Life with Apples, 1890

  • Master of still-lifes

  • Quest for “solid and durable” - Chardin’s sense of the importance of everyday objects

  • Pattern of brushstrokes give the painting a shimmering feel

  • Forms are deliberately simplified and outlined with dark colors

  • Perspective is deliberately wrong

  • Believed that all forms in nature are based upon the cone, sphere, and cylinder

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  • Applying this theory to landscapes became the challenge of his career

  • From 1882 on, he lived in isolation and painted his surroundings

  • Made a series of paintings about this mountain

  • Has a disciplined energy

Cezanne, Mont Sainte-Victoire Seen from Bibemus Quarry, 1897-1900

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George Seurat, The Bathers, 1883-84

  • George Seurat (1859-1891) short lifetime, very influential (like Caravaggio)

  • Devoted to just a few large paintings- spent over a year on each, making many studies

  • Similar colors and light, but opposite of the quick feel of the Impressionists

  • Immobile figures, ordered surface- search for permanence

  • Uses flicks and later dots of paint that combine to create the image-idea from Cezanne

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  • Vincent Van Gogh (1853-1890)

  • Opposite- tried to make Impressionism less ordered

  • Emotions were more important than order

  • 1st great Dutch master since the 17th century-worked for only 10 years, no conventional art training-clumsy forms

  • Main energy was landscape painting, much different than cezanne

Vincent Van Gogh, Wheat Fields and Cypress Trees, 1889

  • Earth and sky are turbulent and filled with emotion- all in motion

  • Artist’s personal handwriting is all important, although to Van Gogh, color was his means of expression- often gave meanings to specific colors and used them over and over again

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  • To portray the essence of himself

  • Wanted to portray humans as holy enough to deserve a halo (from past art)

  • Believed that art alone made his life worth living

Van Gogh, Self Portrait, 1889

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  • Devoted himself to art at the age of 35

  • Became the leader of the Symbolist movement

  • Believed that Western civilization was out of joint

  • Left Paris and studied peasant life in Western France

  • Pre-Renaissance style- flat, simplified shapes, outlined in black- like stained glass-stressed return to Primitive (Egypt, Near East)

  • Moved to Tahiti to learn simplicity from the natives

Paul Gauguin, The Vision After the Sermon (Jacob Wrestling With the Angel), 1888

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  • Followers of Gauguin called themselves the “Nabis”, meaning prophets

  • Spread the word of Post-Impressionism: “The Picture- before being a war horse, a female nude, or some anecdote-is essentially a flat surface covered with colors in a particular order”

  • Small and intimate pictures

  • Color mosaics, economy of means

Edward Vuillard, Repast in a Garde, 1898

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  • Looked to an intense inner world (pretty disturbing)

  • Adopted Impressionist palette and brushstroke but for a completely different end

  • Imagination becomes visible

  • Illogical and solely based on imagination- themes often used by the surrealists

Odilon Redon, The Cyclops, 1898

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Henri Toulouse-Lautrec, At the Moulin Rouge, 1892

  • A preoccupation with decadence, evil, and darkness was popular- reflected the dissatisfaction with modern life

  • Toulouse-Lautrec was the physical incarnation of this- disfigured, shady, and full of mystery- died of alcoholism

  • Admirer of Degas- how can you tell?

  • Joyless and oppressive environment

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Edvard Munch, Ashes, 1893

  • Continuation of the macabre theme

  • Norweigien who moved to Paris

  • Painted frightening apparitions, using undulating, never-ending rhythms

  • Generated much controversy when his works were exhibited

  • Broke off from the accepted artists in Germany and formed the Berlin Secession-became an international movement

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  • Joined the Berlin Secessionists when it spread to Vienna

  • Close ties to the Art Nouveau decoration movement

  • Full of both of eroticism and images of a joyless life

Gustav Klimt, Three Ages of Woman, 1907

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Henri Rousseau, The Dream, 1910

  • Discovered by Picasso- no art training, began painting at the age of 46 (there is hope for all of us!)

  • A folk artist genius! Magical and enchanted world

  • Innocence like Gauguin preached

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  • Inspired by Primitivism like Gauguin and the purity of Russian peasant life

  • Intense color of the Fauvists to come

  • Very expressive and unique

  • Simplified forms inspired Picasso

Modersohn-Becker, Self Portrait, 1906

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  • Wave of modern buildings in Chicago because of the great fire of 1871

  • The first “Sky Scraper”

  • Based on Renaissance ideas

  • Internal steel skeleton- any type of material could be “stretched” across it

  • Thought of buildings as humans- with a skeleton and muscles

  • Thank you Elisha Otis!

  • Form follows function in a two-way relationship

  • Louis Sullivan, Wainwright Building, St. Louis, Missouri, 1890-91

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The Arts and Crafts Movement

In England

William Morris, Green Dining Room, 1867

  • A reaction against industrialization- Morris had a distrust of machines and industrial capitalism

  • Advocated an art made by and for the people- a joy for the maker and the user- partly a socialist idea

  • Functional objects with high aesthetic value for the wide public- based on natural forms, repeated floral or geometric patterns

  • Patterns from Floor to ceiling- produced wallpaper, textiles, tiles, furniture, books, rugs, stained glass, and pottery

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Antonio Gaudi, Casa Mila, 1907

  • An international architectural and design movement developed out of the Arts and Crafts Movement and inspired by Japanese printmaking and Van Gogh- ART NOVEAU

  • Art based on natural forms that could be mass produced for a large audience

  • Gaudi’s building takes its cues from Moorish architecture and from recent finds from the discovery of Altamira

  • Conceived as a whole, almost sculpted like a sculpture-undulating and rhythmic like an organic form

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  • The other extreme of Art Noveau Architecture

  • Similar to Sullivan’s aesthetic

  • Sculpted like Gaudi’s out of one idea


Charles Rennie Mackintosh, Glasgow School of Art, 1896-1910

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  • Louis Comfort Tiffany

  • 1848-1933

  • Headed Tiffany and Company which was started by his father

  • Experimented with stained glass techniques, creating a patent for opalescent glass

  • Many, many copies were made of his designs and technique

  • Produced perfume bottles, tiles, desk furniture and most importantly WINDOWS!

  • Contributed to the spread of the Art Noveau style

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