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Marijuana, K2 and Other Drugs What Athletics Administrators Should Know. NCAA Convention January 13, 2010 Panelists: Andrea Wickerham, The National Center for Drug Free Sport Doug Padron, Monmouth University John Sullivan, Providence College and University of Rhode Island.

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Marijuana k2 and other drugs what athletics administrators should know l.jpg
Marijuana, K2 and Other DrugsWhat Athletics Administrators Should Know

NCAA Convention

January 13, 2010

Panelists: Andrea Wickerham, The National Center for Drug Free Sport

Doug Padron, Monmouth University

John Sullivan, Providence College and University of Rhode Island


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Marijuana Effects/NIDA

  • euphoria and relaxation

  • slowed reaction time

  • distorted sensory perception

  • impaired balance and coordination

  • increased heart rate and appetite

  • impaired learning and memory

  • anxiety, panic attacks, psychosis

  • cough, frequent respiratory infections

  • possible mental health decline

  • addiction



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Marijuana – 2009 NCAA Study

  • 23.6% reported use within the last 12 months.

  • Over 1/2 report use as less than once per month.

  • Majority indicated use only during their off season.

  • Majority obtained from a friend, family member or teammate.


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NCAA Positive Tests for Marijuana

  • Championship test results


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Science and Legal Issues

Andrea Wickerham

Vice-President

The National Center for Drug Free Sport


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K2 – What is it?

  • Synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonist

  • AKA Spice, Spice Gold, Pot-pourri, Serenity and herbal incense

  • JWH-018, JWH-073, HU-210, CP 47, 497 (over 100 synthetic cannabinoids)

  • Developed for research purposes

    • Pain management

    • Brain research

    • Anti-slip agent

    • Contaminant found in many plastics

  • Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) substitute?

    • But structurally quite different

    • Potentially more potent than THC


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K2 – What is it?

  • Street drug?

  • Marketed as “all natural” to teens and young adults

  • Smokeable (pipe, water pipe, rolled papers, inhaled smoke or vapors)

  • Internet, tobacco and pipe stores, “head shops,” convenience stores

  • Not made for human consumption

  • JWH-018 and its chemical cousins have a chemical structure shared with known cancer-causing agents


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K2 – What is it?

  • No published safety data

  • No published known effects in humans

  • Anecdotal reports of the following:

    • Agitation

    • Anxiety

    • Tachycardia

    • Vomiting

    • Very high blood pressure

    • Seizures

    • Hallucinations

    • Non-responsiveness


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Drug Testing for K2

“We have a student-athlete who was in the emergency room over the weekend! Says he was smoking ‘Spice’. His heart was racing, his BP was off the charts, and he was hallucinating. This went on for hours!! Can you drug test him for this stuff.”


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Drug Testing for K2

  • Remember – K2 or Spice Gold or Spice is NOT marijuana (THC)

  • Traditional “street drug panel” will not find these synthetic cannabinoids

  • Developing a test is complex

  • Must first locate and isolate the substance

  • Pure metabolite or in an excretion urine

  • Human use for research purposes (ethical issues)

  • Create the assay and validate the testing methodologies

  • Cost prohibitive for most labs

  • UCLA Olympic Analytical Lab has developed a screen and confirmation for JWH-018 in urine

  • Screen for JWH-073

  • Only the metabolites appear in urine

  • Short detection window (up to 72 hours?)

  • Qualitative test (indicates presence or no presence, no threshold)


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Drug Testing for THC

  • ∆9 – tetrahydrocannabinol acid (metabolite of THC)

  • Banned Drug Class = Street drug (NCAA)

  • Quantative test (concentration found in urine)

    • e.g. 75 ng/mL

  • Traditional testing methodologies

    • Immunoassay (screen)

    • GC/MS (confirmation)

  • Reasons for testing for THC

    • Workplace (safety)

    • Sport (use, deterrence, health and safety)

  • Thresholds/Cutoffs for positive

    • NCAA = > 15 ng/mL (confirmation)

    • Institutional autonomy to lower threshold > 5 ng/mL (confirmation)


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Drug Testing for THC

  • Detection period

    • It depends …

      • Chronic user

      • Recent use

      • Amount smoked

      • THC concentration

      • Body size

      • Body metabolism

  • Second-hand smoke/passive inhalation

    • Not likely

    • Consider the research

    • Investigate, gather the facts, ask questions


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Legal Landscape

  • K2 Legal Issues

    • Initially legal

    • Currently illegal or regulated in 15 states

    • Bills pending in other states

    • Sanctions vary depending on possession, sale, manufacture or distribution

    • November 24, 2010 – DEA issued a notice of intent to place 5 of the synthetic cannabinoids into the Controlled Substances Act (CSA)

    • Demonstrated an “imminent hazard to safety of the public”

    • Schedule I substance

    • Impose federal criminal sanctions


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Legal Landscape

  • THC Issues

    • Federal offense to possess

    • Proposition 19 in California failed (Regulate, Control and Tax Cannabis Act)

    • Legal in 15 states and DC for medical purposes

    • 6 states have pending legislation for medical marijuana

    • Numerous state differences

      • Amount allowed for use

      • Amount allowed for plant cultivation

      • Approved medical conditions

      • Written documentation from a physician

      • Dispensaries


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Other NGB and Anti-Doping Organization’s Policies

  • World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA)

    • Prohibited List

      • Potential to enhance or enhances sport performance

      • Use of the substance or method represents an actual or potential health risk to the athlete

      • Use of the substance or method violates the spirit of sport as described in the WADA Code

      • Must meet 2 of these 3

    • Bans THC “In Competition”

    • Bans synthetic cannabinoids (JWH-018, JWH-073, HU-210) “In Competition”


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Other NGB and Anti-Doping Organizations’ Policies

  • Professional Leagues

    • Ban and test for THC

    • NFL (Substance of Abuse Program)

    • NBA, NBA D-League, WNBA

    • LPGA and PGA

    • MiLB (Minor League Baseball)


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Andrea S. Wickerham, J.D.Vice PresidentThe National Center for Drug Free Sport

2537 Madison Ave. | Kansas City, MO 64108 | 816.474.8655 ext. 118| [email protected]


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NCAA and CSMAS Considerations Regarding Drug Testing(Deterrence, Student-Athlete Health and Safety)

  • Doug Padron, ATC

  • Associate Athletic Director, Monmouth University

  • Chair of NCAA Drug Education and Testing Subcommittee


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Overview

  • Current Penalties

  • Medical Use

  • CSMAS Recommendations

    • Education:

      • APPLE Conference

      • Power of Peer Education

      • Monmouth University Experience


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Current Penalties

  • Loss of one full season of participation

    • NCAA Bylaw 18.4.5.1

  • Often, student-athletes do not recover and return to play:

    • Game passes them by

    • Team moves on without them

    • University may not renew scholarship

  • Wasted opportunity…


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Medical Use

  • The terminally ill

  • Cancer

  • Amelioration of nausea

  • Stimulation of hunger in chemo and aids patients

  • Decreasing pressure for glaucoma


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CSMAS Position on Medical MJ

  • regulation of medical marijuana is variable, with no FDA review or approval

  • there are no uniform procedures for procuring a medical marijuana card

  • marijuana delivered through smoking is a crude delivery system that also delivers harmful substances

  • there are approved effective treatments for those medical conditions generally identified for medical marijuana


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Education Strategies

  • What’s already in your backyard

  • SAAC, SAM, & Champs Life Skills

  • NCAA Apple Conference

  • Guest Speakers

  • Institutional Drug Testing


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MU Apple Experience

  • Initiated Alcohol and Other Drug Education Program in Spring 2003

    • Education programs

    • Creation of Peer Leadership Program Spring 2003

    • Drug Testing, Fall 2oo4

  • 1st Trip to Apple 2004 (6 S-As, 2 ATCs)

    • Alcohol Education

    • Student-Athletes and Administration work together to enhance Alcohol Policy

  • 2nd Trip to Apple 2006 (7 S-As, 2 ATCs)

    • Code of Conduct

    • Frosh Student-Athlete Orientation/Education Program

    • Presented @ Apple Indianapolis in 2007

    • Awarded the Prism Award for excellence in athletic administration

  • 4th Trip to Apple 2009 (4 S-As, 1 SWA, 1 ATC)

    • Host Education Program

    • Information Pamphlet for Host

  • 5th Trip to Apple 2010 (4 S-As, 1 SWA, 2 ATC)

    • Presented Host Education Program

    • 2 Projects:

      • Play Day with the Hawks

      • “Don’t Do Anything That Could Change Everything” campaign



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Monmouth University Athletic Department

Code of Conduct

As Hawks we will protect the integrity of the University, others, and ourselves. To accomplish this mission I WILL:

Make progress towards a degree and graduate from Monmouth University

Actively participate in both the campus and surrounding community

Maintain good sportsmanship by respecting opponents, teammates, fans, and officials

Abide by Team, NEC, and NCAA rules

Agree to the MUAOD Education Policy

Have an open mind toward other’s cultural beliefs and backgrounds

Adhere to the law and respect the rights and property of others

Respect Myself

Respect the Game

Conduct myself like a Champion…


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Goals

  • Respond to issues on campus and throughout collegiate athletics

  • Orient new student-athletes on the philosophy and expectations of the athletic department

  • Create the Frosh Education Program by implementing education programs developed in the Peer Leader Program for all first year student-athletes

  • Teach everyone what it means to be a HAWK

    • Leadership

    • Accountability = Role Model

    • Pride

    • Maturity


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Don’t Do Anything That Could Change Everything!

  • Recruit additional team leaders

  • Orient group on mission

  • Hold closed door team meeting

    • Poor Decision Making

    • Impact on you and your team

    • Pride

    • Respect

    • Accountability


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Result

In one calendar year MU went from the highestpercentage of positive screens to 0%!

(Approximately 200 drug tests)

Student-athletes can/will have the biggest impact on any change you need to make to your culture!


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Contact Information

Doug Padron, ATC

Associate Athletic Director

Monmouth University

West Long Branch, NJ 07764

(732) 571-3672

[email protected]


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Marijuana Use and College: A Time of Risks

John P. Sullivan, Psy.D.

Clinical Sport Psychologist

Providence College and University of Rhode Island

Chief Consultant,Clinical & Sports Consulting Services


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Marijuana Use and College: A Time of Risks

  • Student-athletes at greater risk for Substance Abuse/Substance Dependence issues

  • The hidden gateway drug

    • 98% of marijuana users later used another substance (Mohler-Kuo, Lee, & Wechsler 2002)


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Marijuana Use and College: A Time of Risks

  • About one third of college students reported use before college Johnson et al., 2008

    • First-year students have highest prevalence

    • Nearly 1 in 2 (47%) reported having used marijuana

    • Relationship between marijuana and other drugs

    • Increase in prevalence of use nationally from 1993-2008


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Marijuana Use and College: A Time of Risks

Interventions and College Campuses

  • Remember culture counts!

  • Early Intervention can alter the typical course

    • Have a program

    • Incoming student-athletes can be targeted for prevention interventions directly and indirectly

    • Use multiple modes of contact (e.g. didactic, peer mentor, feedback-based, web-based)


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Marijuana Use and College: A Time of Risks

Campus Resources

  • Look in your backyard

    • Counseling Center

      • Build a relationship/ partnership

      • Collaborate early and often for programming

      • Conduct screenings (Alcohol, Marijuana, Depression, Anxiety, etc.)


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Marijuana Use and College: A Time of Risks

Campus resources

Applied Degree Programs (Psychology, Public Health, Nursing programs, Medical Schools)

  • Research

  • Consulting Centers/Supervised Care Providing

  • Cross discipline exchange of effort and ideas


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Marijuana Use and College: A Time of Risks

  • Looking over the fence

    • The Pro Ranks

    • Prevention [Primary, Secondary, and Tertiary]

      • Character Development Program (CDP)

      • Identification/Assessment

      • Education

      • Skill Based Program/Transferable

      • Direct Treatment


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John P. Sullivan, Psy.D.

Clinical Sport Psychologist

performancedocs.com

[email protected]

(401) 258-6754


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NCAA Resources

  • APPLE Conferences

  • CHOICES Grant Awards

  • Educational Affairs Program Grants

  • Health and Safety Publications

  • Heath and Safety Posters

  • REC

  • Sports Medicine Handbook

    www.ncaa.org/health-safety

To promote the Health and Safety

of the more than 400,000

NCAA Student-Athletes!


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