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Merchandising “Area of an apparel company that develops strategies to have the right merchandise, at the right price, at the right location to meet the wants and needs of the target customer” Burns and Bryant1997, pg.. 429

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Merchandising

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Merchandising

  • “Area of an apparel company that develops strategies to have the right merchandise, at the right price, at the right location to meet the wants and needs of the target customer”

    • Burns and Bryant1997, pg.. 429


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“The process of planning , developing, and presenting product lines for identified target markets.”

Kunz, 1998

The activities involved in buying and selling: finding customers, providing them with what they want, when they want it, at prices they can afford, and are willing to pay.”

Jarnow, Guerreiro, and Judelle, 1987, pg. 506


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Chapter One

From Spinning Machine to Quick Response


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1789-1890Mechanization of Spinning, Weaving, and Sewing

  • Several inventions

    • Spinning jenny - Samuel Slater

    • Power loom - Francis Cabot Lowell

    • Cotton gin - Eli Whitney

    • Sewing machine - Walter Hunt, Elias Howe, and Isaac Singer


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Ramifications

  • Decrease in production time

  • Increase in demand for ready made clothing

    • Increase in demand was an economic issue

    • Need of sailor, miners and slaves

    • Increase in middle class consumer who wanted affordable, not custom clothing.

  • The birth of Ready to Wear (RTW)

  • Standardized sizes

    • Men's wear - Civil war uniforms


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  • Distribution changes

    • Catalogs

    • Department Stores


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1890-1950Growth of the Ready-to-Wear Industry

  • Women's and children's clothing

  • Mass production

    • Sweat shops

  • Formation of International Ladies Garment Workers Union (ILGWU)

  • Women's wear centralized in New York

  • Men's wear decentralized - Chicago, Baltimore, New York.


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  • Invention of the zipper

  • Increase in marketing efforts (fashion magazines) increased demand - Vogue, DNR, WWD

  • WWI - Uniform production helped to streamline production methods.

  • 1st outdoor mall - Country Club Plaza in Kansas City.


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  • Further equipment development

    • Sergers and power cutting

  • Beginning of globalization - Paris

  • Synthetics - Rayon

  • Depression of the 1930’s dealt a hard blow

    • Recovery occurred after WWII

  • Nylon - DuPont


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  • Subcontracting.

  • Sportswear Industry immerged.

  • Increase in information - More fashion magazines - Narrow target.

  • Brand recognition - Arrow.

  • Decentralization of Industry occurred in the 1940’s.


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1950-1980Diversification and Incorporation

  • Continued growth in consumer demand.

  • Lifestyle changes drove industry.

    • Increase in casual, decrease in suit sales.

  • Teen fashion flourished.

  • Use of synthetics increased - Americas love affair with polyester (1970’s).

  • Couture copies in RTW.


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Incorporation

  • Increase in large publicly owned apparel companies.

  • Growth in suburbia spurred the development of the shopping mall.

  • Designer licensing.

  • Rising labor costs

    • Discounters (Kmart, Target)

    • Increase in imports - 581% (1961-1976)


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1980-presentThe Era of Quick Response

  • Increases in costs such as labor, energy and materials.

  • Increase in imports.

  • American manufacturers needed to reevaluate processes.

  • Studies revealed that products were spending too much time in inventory resulting in huge inefficiencies.

  • The birth of Quick response.


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Quick Response

  • A reduction in the amount of time between fiber production and sale to the ultimate consumer.

    • Increase speed of design

    • Improve on communication

    • Reduce warehouse and in-transit time

    • Decrease reorder time

  • Shift from “push system” to “pull-system”


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Industry Cooperation/Partnerships

  • Textile/Clothing Technology Corporation

    • TC²

  • Focus on development, testing and teaching of advanced apparel technology to reduce direct labor costs.

  • Mission:

    • Demonstrate the latest technology.

    • Educate apparel industry on ramifications of technology use.

    • Short-term development of technologies.


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  • Voluntary Inter-Industry Communications Standards Committee (VICS)

    • Bar-coding

  • Textile Apparel Linkage Council (TALC) & Sundries and Apparel Findings Linkage Council (SAFLINC)

    • EDI Standards

  • Crafted with Pride in USA Council

    • Boost American economy


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Supply Chain Management

  • A concept brought on by advancements in technology.

  • Sharing and coordinating information across all segments of the soft goods industry.


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  • The collection of the activities necessary to bring a product to market

    • Raw materials procurement

    • Production

    • Transportation

    • Distribution

    • Managing the selling process

      • (Abend, 1998)


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Goals of SCM

  • Reduce inventory

  • Shorten production time

  • Provide better service

  • Sharing of information as well has product

    • Forecasting

    • POS

    • Inventory

    • Changes


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Clicking

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