Steps for developing instructional approaches egra workshop march 12 14 2008
Download
1 / 47

Materials: 2 books - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 498 Views
  • Uploaded on

Steps for Developing Instructional Approaches EGRA Workshop March 12-14, 2008 Marcia Davidson Sandra Hollingsworth University of Maine University of California, Berkeley Orono, ME 04469 Berkeley, CA [email protected] [email protected] Developing a Pilot Instrument

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Materials: 2 books' - albert


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
Steps for developing instructional approaches egra workshop march 12 14 2008 l.jpg

Steps for Developing Instructional ApproachesEGRA WorkshopMarch 12-14, 2008

Marcia Davidson Sandra Hollingsworth

University of Maine University of California, Berkeley

Orono, ME 04469 Berkeley, CA

[email protected]@berkeley.edu


Developing a pilot instrument l.jpg
Developing a Pilot Instrument

Conceptual framework for assessment probes

General Outcome Measure (GOM) rather than a Mastery Measure

GOM means that progress is linear over time and the measure is sensitive to small increments in performance. The monitoring is always on a goal reading passage – not instructional level.

Efficient and simple to administer and score

Provides valid and reliable information on reading proficiency


Class or student level report individual student performance profile or student history l.jpg
Class or Student Level Report: Individual Student Performance Profile or Student History

An individual student progress summary provides both a numerical and pictorial display of student performance on one measure across a year(s) in relation to the established goal.

One student’s Oral Reading Fluency Progress Across Years

Harn (2005)

3

Harn (2005)


Step 4 how to graph reading scores l.jpg
Step 4: How to Graph Reading Scores

The vertical axis is labeled with the range of student scores.

The horizontal axis is labeled with the number of instructional weeks.


Measures developed for the gambia l.jpg
Measures Developed for The Gambia

Letter Name Knowledge: naming random list of upper and lower case letters in one minute. Total of 100 letters.

Phoneme Segmentation: This measure is more challenging and asks children to count the number of sounds and then make the sounds. It can be difficult and it is possible that a poor performance is not due to poor phonological sensitivity but to poor working memory.


More on phoneme segmentation l.jpg
More on Phoneme Segmentation

Why is this task considered important?

Phonological processing is key to success in reading. Children need to know the sounds in words so that they are able to map the sounds/phonemes to letters/graphemes and can acquire the alphabetic principle.

There are developmental phases of phonological awareness.

Phoneme segmentation as well as phoneme blending are predictive of reading success.


Phonemes are most difficult l.jpg
PHONEMES Are Most Difficult

Phonological Awareness

Phonemes

Onset/Rime

Syllable

Slide developed by Linda Farrell

Really Great Reading Company


There are levels of phonological awareness l.jpg
There are levels of phonological awareness

We know that phonemic awareness is the highest level of the phonological awareness skills.

Phoneme

/ n /

/ ī /

/sh/

Onset/Rime

/ īn /

/sh/

sun

shine

Syllable

sunshine

Word

Slide developed by Linda Farrell

Really Great Reading Company


Slide9 l.jpg

When children have difficulty with phonemes, we need to “back up” along the phonological continuum.


Familiar word identification l.jpg
Familiar Word Identification “back up” along the phonological continuum.

What does a student’s performance on this measure tell us?

If a child is sounding out each word, letter by letter, then they have not developed automaticity in word recognition, a necessary skill for fluent reading.

A child needs to see a word from 4-10 times and recognize it accurately before it can become automatic. Children need to read words they are learning many times in context and practicing reading words in isolation is sometimes very helpful.

If a child is not able to sound out words successfully, they need to learn basic phonics skills, followed by more advanced word study.


Simple unfamiliar nonword decoding l.jpg
Simple Unfamiliar Nonword Decoding “back up” along the phonological continuum.

Children read a list of pseudowords/non words. Why do we ask them to do this?

It is the only way to know how they decode words. If we ask them to read real words, they may have memorized many and we cannot know if they understand the sound/symbol (phoneme/grapheme)relationship. We must ask them to read nonwords so that we can see whether they understand how speech to print works.


Passage reading l.jpg
Passage Reading “back up” along the phonological continuum.

Students are asked to read connected text aloud for 60 seconds.

Why is reading connected text fluently important?

Why does rate and accuracy matter when reading aloud?

Students are asked a series of questions about what they read to make sure they are not just saying words without understanding what they are reading.


Listening comprehension l.jpg
Listening Comprehension “back up” along the phonological continuum.

This task involves reading a short passage to a student aloud and then asking questions about the passage to find out whether the student understood what was read to him/her.

Why is this important? Consider the simple view of reading:

decoding X listening comprehension = reading


Dictation l.jpg
Dictation “back up” along the phonological continuum.

The student is asked to listen to a short sentence that is read aloud and is asked to write the sentence. The sentence is repeated two more times more slowly.

What skills does this task address?

Working memory, spelling skills, phonological/orthographic memory


Instructional implications l.jpg
Instructional Implications “back up” along the phonological continuum.

Five key components of reading

Phoneme awareness/sensitivity

Phonics

Fluency

Vocabulary

Comprehension

All are important and they are NOT a sequence of instruction.


Instructional implications from the gambia egra instrument l.jpg
Instructional Implications from The Gambia EGRA Instrument “back up” along the phonological continuum.

Children need to learn:

phonological awareness

letter names and sounds to automaticity

decoding Skills to automaticity

vocabulary and comprehension skills


Phonological phonemic awareness l.jpg
Phonological/Phonemic Awareness “back up” along the phonological continuum.

Playing with the sounds of language.

Teaching PA in the dark!

Sounds in children’s names

Changing the first sound in a name or adding a sound at the end

Counting sounds in names

Hearing a word segmented into phonemes and blending it

Listening to a word and saying the sounds

Pushing a marker into a box for each sound in a word


Learning letter names with an alphabet arc l.jpg
Learning Letter Names with an alphabet arc “back up” along the phonological continuum.

From Florida Center on Reading Research: Student Activities - Phonics


More on phonics l.jpg
More on Phonics “back up” along the phonological continuum.

Scope and sequence of teaching children how to decode:

Teaching letter names and sounds: Early on, children need to pay attention to the location of the letter in a word as well as its sound

Poor readers often get the initial letter in a word, but do not do well with the medial or final letters. So they must be taught to attend to every letter in a word.


Teaching letter sound relationships l.jpg
Teaching Letter-sound relationships “back up” along the phonological continuum.

Large letter cards

Pocket chart

Letter tiles and magnetic board

(video clips)

Instructional sequence:

Begin with /m/ sound and talk about the sound in several words.

Move to print and show children how the sound /m/ is represented by the letter ‘m’.

Discriminate among words that begin with ‘m’ and those that begin with other letters.

Present an example of a word with the ‘m’ in the final position.

Discriminate among words that end with ‘m’ and words that end in other letters.


Fluency l.jpg
Fluency “back up” along the phonological continuum.

Teaching children to decode to automaticity: every word becomes a sight word.

Building decoding skills so that children recognize spelling patterns in words.

Practice reading the word patterns taught in connected text.

Reading with a model for guided oral repeated reading to build fluency.


Vocabulary l.jpg
Vocabulary “back up” along the phonological continuum.

Never begin with a dictionary definition.

Always explain a word in student-friendly terms. Create a definition that a child would understand.

Example: cinnamon: (American Heritage Dictionary) The aromatic reddish or yellowish-brown bark of certain tropical Asian trees, dried and often ground for use as a spice. (!!!)

Select Tier 2 words to teach. Words that are important for children to understand – not rare and unusual words that they will not see often.


Comprehension some examples of strategies l.jpg
Comprehension (some examples of strategies) “back up” along the phonological continuum.

Teaching narrative story structure

Story maps with topic/title in a circle on the middle of the page, and subtopics in surrounding circles.

Teaching text structure: for example, main idea, compare-contrast, classification. How is the text organized?

Focus on Before, During, and After reading


Developing teaching strategies building a beginning reading program based on egra data l.jpg
Developing Teaching Strategies: Building a Beginning Reading Program based on EGRA data

What are some phonological awareness activities that can be taught to a whole class?

What are some approaches to teaching decoding skills?

What are some strategies to help children build fluency in reading connected text?

What are some effective ways to teach children vocabulary?

What are effective ways to teach comprehension skills?


Other considerations l.jpg
Other Considerations Program based on EGRA data

Linking data to instruction

How to decide what to teach

When to consider grouping children (who will teach groups?)

How do you know when they have mastered a skill?


An example of a reading program l.jpg
An Example of a Reading Program Program based on EGRA data

A PROGRAM NOW BEING PILOTED IN NIGER AND MALI

Systematic Method for Reading Success


Smrl is based on these assumptions l.jpg
SMRL is based on these assumptions Program based on EGRA data

Children in developing countries have UNACCEPTABLE LITERACY LEVELS!!

Being denied an opportunity to learn to read and write in their native languages is oppressive

Teachers in these countries have little training in how to teach literacy

Teachers need a guaranteed method for teaching literacy


Given baseline assessments what now l.jpg
Given Baseline Assessments, Program based on EGRA dataWhat now?

  • From research, we know that students need:

    • Phonemic Awareness

    • Phonics

    • Fluency

    • Vocabulary and

    • Comprehension


The best way to learn phonemic awareness phonics and sight words l.jpg
The best way to learn phonemic awareness, phonics and sight words

is to introduce them through a systematic program…..

that begins with phonemic awareness, then the slow introduction of one or two letter-sound combinations and one or two sight words that students will be able to practice enough so that when they come to a story containing the sounds and words, they will know how to read them.

Then multi-syllabic words and stories

With an emphasis on comprehension.


The best way to learn to read l.jpg
The best way to learn to read words

is through successful practice every day…from Day 1

Students gradually build up knowledge of letter names, sounds, blending sounds into words, recognizing sight words, so that they NEVER fail when learning to read.

At the end of the systematic program(approximately 75 lessons, depending on the native language patterns), they are competent enough to read any materials.


Materials 2 books approx 75 lessons book 1 book 2 l.jpg
Materials: 2 books, approx. 75 lessons wordsBook 1 Book 2

  • 1. Re-read yesterday’s text

  • 2. Phonemic Awareness

  • 3. Name & sound of letters

  • 4. Blending sounds into Words

  • 5. High frequency sight words

  • 6. Read-aloud for vocabulary & comp

  • 7. Independent reading using letters & words taught

  • 1. Review phonics/sight words (if needed)

  • 2. Sight syllables

  • 3. Reading entire words

  • 4. Spelling & writing

  • 5. Read-aloud for vocabulary and comp

  • 6. Independent reading




Slide36 l.jpg

di ka di e ni ne ye. learn quickly

ye di da yan.

e ni ne ye di ye.

e ni ne .


Consistent and simple to learn for teachers and students l.jpg
Consistent and simple to learn learn quicklyfor teachers and students



The tools l.jpg
The tools national language

Proper materials development

Proper training and commitment of supervisors

Proper training of teachers

Close monitoring of teachers

Mastery test every 10 lessons (to know where every student is and what’s needed)

Celebrations of success!



Here are some results from mali niger on correlations of teacher implementation ts 8 sts 390 l.jpg
Here are some results from Mali & Niger on correlations of teacher implementation Ts =8 Sts.= 390


Implications l.jpg
Implications: teacher implementation Ts =8 Sts.= 390

A simple program that would work in every developing literacy country…….if

You had an agreement with your ministry to pilot it

You had supervisors to support the teachers in the beginning

You had a strong management team

And a deep belief that all students deserve to be literate.


Questions for either or both of us l.jpg
Questions for either or both of us? teacher implementation Ts =8 Sts.= 390


ad