Islam I: Beliefs Introduction to World Religions Fall 2007 Dr. Hannah Schell Agenda for class session The religions of Abraham: shared tenets Basic terms; global overview Beginning with God (Allah) The life of the prophet Muhammad A Religion of the Book: The Koran
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Islam I: Beliefs
Introduction to World Religions Fall 2007 Dr. Hannah Schell
Abraham and Isaac1634 (120 Kb); Oil on canvas, 158 x 117 cm (62 x 46 in); Hermitage, St. Petersburg
(Adopted from Patrick Burke’s “The Religions of Semitic Origin” introduction. The Major Religions, 191.)
These religions emphasize the importance of:
(Adopted from Patrick Burke’s “The Religions of Semitic Origin” introduction. The Major Religions, 192.)
NOTE: Less than 20 per cent of Muslims are Arabs. Almost half of the world's Muslims live in South and Southeast Asia.
Mosque in Senegal
Mosque in Tunisia
Praying in Nairobi, Kenya
Source of photos: http://www.islamfortoday.com/muslimstoday.htm#Africa
Mosque in Pakistan
Source of pictures: http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/middle_east/2411043.stm
The US has an estimated 5.7 million Muslims--roughly equal to its Jewish population
At Harvard University in Boston, MA
The Fatihah (Opening) of the Koran:
In the Name of God, the merciful Lord of mercy.
Praise be to God, the Lord of all being,
The merciful Lord of mercy,
Master of the Day of Judgment.
You alone we serve and to You alone we come for aid.
Guide us in the straight path,
“When God willed the appearance of His truth, the lore of Muhammad, and its manifestation in a body and in a soul, in a form and in a content, He transferred it to its fixed abode… And He… selected her to be the mother of the Purified One. And it was proclaimed in the Heavens and on Earth that she, Amina, had become pregnant of one of the Lights of the Essence. And every zephyr blew gently to make a soft breeze freshly fanning the earth which was dressed, after her long period of barrenness, with vegetation with green silken robes. The fruits began to ripen, and the trees approaches the picker that he might pick the ripe fruits. And every domestic animal of the Quraysh spoke of his being expected with eloquence in the Arabic tongue.
The thrones of royalty were overturned and the idols of heathendom fell on their faces. The wild animals of East and West prophesied the good tidings, as well as the creatures of the sea. The worlds drank joy from the cup of juvenile strength. The spirits received the glad tiding of the imminence of his time….”
(From: Mawlid Al-Barzanji; in Textual Sources for the Study of Islam, 66).
One legend has it that the Prophet’s mother, Amina, heard a voice when she was pregnant..
“You are pregnant with the Lord of this people and when he is born say, ‘I put him in the care of the One from the evil of every envier; then call him Muhammad’ [meaning ‘laudable’.”
Mt. Hira – north of Mecca
“Proclaim in the name of your Lord who created!
Created man from a clot of blood.
Proclaim: Your Lord is the Most Generous
Who teaches by the pen;
Teaches man what he knew not.” Koran 96: 1-3 (quoted by Smith, 226).
Source of image: http://www.indiana.edu/~rcapub/v21n1/p15.html
“The Qur’an [is]… simultaneously a source of prayer and a prayer in its own right, a guidebook for action as well as a ritual object” (Islam, 21).
“We have revealed the Torah, in which there is guidance and light. By it the prophets who surrendered themselves judged the Jews.. According to God’s Book which had been committed to their keeping and to which they themselves were witnesses.
… After them We sent forth Jesus, the son of Mary, confirming the Torah already revealed, and gave him the Gospel, in which there is guidance and light, corroborating what was revealed before it in the Torah, a guide and an admonition to the righteous…
… And to you [Muslims] We have revealed the Book with the truth. It confirms the Scriptures which came before it and stands as a guardian over them.”
- From the Koran, quoted in The World’s Wisdom, 291.
“The word qur’an means ‘recitation.’ It was not designed for private perusal, but like most scriptures, it was meant to be read aloud, and the sound was an essential part of the sense… The Qur’an was deliberatively repetitive; its ideas, images, and stories were bound together by these internal echoes [themes, words, phrases, and sound patterns], which reinforced its central teaching with instructive shifts of emphasis” (Armstrong, Muhammad, 58-59).
God is most great [4 times]
Ashhadu an la ilaha illa llah
I testify that there is no god but God [2 times]
Ashhadu anna muhammadan rasulu llah
I testify that Muhammad is the messenger of God [2 times]
Hayy ala s-sala
Come (alive) to the prayer [2 times]
Hayy ala l-falah
Come (alive) to flourishing [2 times]
God is most great [2 times]
La ilaha illa llah
(there is) no god but God [once]
Mustafa Ozcan Gunesdogdu – represents the Turkish tradition of Qur’an recitation; has received international recognition and prizes. (Sunni Adhan)
Gratitude – for life
Surrender – to Allah
In the Name of God the Compassionate the Caring
What is the qari’a
What can tell you of the qari’a
A day humankind are like moths scattered
And mountains are like fluffs of wool
Whoever’s scales weigh heavy
His is a life that is pleasing
Whoever’s scales weigh light
His mother is hawiya
What can tell you what she is
Muhammad Khalil al-Husari – master of murattal style of recitation.