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Idealism and Reform 1820s and 1930s. Great Awakening Family Political Perfection Religious Perfection Transcendentalism. The Second Great Awakening. Response to rapid economic changes Lyman Beecher 1812: neo-Calvinism New England, “free agency” Final end of old Calvinism

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Idealism and Reform 1820s and 1930s

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Idealism and Reform1820s and 1930s

Great Awakening

Family

Political Perfection

Religious Perfection

Transcendentalism


The Second Great Awakening

  • Response to rapid economic changes

  • Lyman Beecher 1812: neo-Calvinism

    • New England, “free agency”

    • Final end of old Calvinism

  • Charles Finney1820s: burned over region

    • Very charismatic, emotional release

    • Christianity of the Heart, God’s mercy

    • Free will, people in charge of their salvation

    • Fits in with Jacksonian Democracy


Christianity of the Heart

  • Christian Activism: Missionaries, Societies

  • Temperance: By 1850s many dry states

  • Abolitionism: Started w/ Quakers 1770s

    • American Colonization Society

    • William Lloyd Garrison, The Liberator, he

      • Is 100% for immediate emancipation

    • Fredrick Douglas: background

    • Theodore Weld: moderates split w/ Garrison


William Lloyd Garrison


The Liberator: 1831


Frederick Douglas


Women and the Family

  • Women’s Movement: from abolitionism

    • Elizabeth Cady Stanton

    • Seneca Falls Convention: July 1848

  • Family Changes

    • Separate spheres

    • Women put on a pedestal: idealized

    • Less children: Longer childhood

    • EDUCATION REFORM: HORACE MANN


Secular Idealism

  • Asylums: Dorothy Dix

  • Utopian Socialism: Robert Owen

    • Charles Fourier

  • Transcendentalism: Ralph Waldo Emerson

    • Romanticism: Edgar Allen Poe

    • Henry David Thoreau: Walden & On Civil Disobedience

    • Brooks Farm: Hawthorn

    • Herman Melville


Ralph Waldo Emerson


Henry David Thoreau


Religious Perfection

  • The Skakers: Ann Lee

  • The Oneida Community: free love

  • The Mormons

    • John Smith

    • Brigham Young

    • Utah


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