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Watershed Park DFC = Mixed Coniferous: Douglas fir (D), Grand fir ... between the Delta Nature Reserve (Burns Bog), Watershed Park, and Serpentine Wilderness ...

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IB Geo. 12 Formal Field Study

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IB Geo. 12

Formal Field Study

Delta Nature Reserve / Watershed Park /

Serpentine Wildlife Management Area


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Why study these areas?

  • Consider:

  • The presence of three unique ecosystems in a relatively short distance (see map handout)

  • The unique value of each of these areas as described in the Preparation Exercises


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Research Question: Which key factor(s) account for the significant differences in vegetation types between the Delta Nature Reserve (Burns Bog), Watershed Park, and the Serpentine Wildlife Management Area?

Hypothesis: You design one. Based upon your preparation exercise readings and exercises and looking over the Factors Affecting Biomes web, hypothesize as to the main factor(s) determining the differences in vegetation type.


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Consider the formation of these areas over geologic time:

Ice Cover over the Lower Mainland 16 000 years ago


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Ice Cover over the Lower Mainland 13 500 years ago


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Note: Source for the previous two slides

p. 39 and 51 of:

Clague, John, and Bob Turner. Vancouver, City On The Edge. Vancouver: Tricouni Press, 2003.


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10 000 years ago


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5 000 years ago


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Burns

Bog

Water-shed P.

SWMA

Today


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Note: Source for the previous three slides

Natural Resources Canada. Geoscape Vancouver: The Fraser River Delta. Jan. 3, 2008 <http://geoscape.nrcan.gc.ca/vancouver/fraser_e.php>.


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Formation of Burns Bog over the last 7000 years. See preparation exercise readings and questions for more details as well as more Burns Bog information on Mr. Mlezivas website.


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Burns

Bog

Water-shed P.

SWMA


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Note: Source for the previous slide

Turner, Bob. Vancouvers Landscape. Feb. 12, 2008<http://gsc.nrcan.gc.ca/urbgeo/vanland/images/vanland_v7_3.jpg>.


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Nature Reserve

Burns

Bog

Watershed

Park

SWMA

Vegetation of Southwestern Fraser Lowland 1858-1880


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Vegetation of Southwestern Fraser Lowland 1858-1880

Burns Bog It cb P = Labrador Tea: labrador tea (lt), cranberry (cb), salal, Pine (P)

mP = Moss with scrub pine: sphagnum (m), scattered pine (P), Hemlock, Spruce.

Watershed Park DFC = Mixed Coniferous: Douglas fir (D), Grand fir (F), Cedar (C), [Hemlock], [Pine], [Spruce], Alder, Dogwood, vine maple, briars.

D = Douglas Fir: Douglas fir (D), [Cedar], salal, oregon grape, hawthorn

Serpentine Wildlife Management Area g = Prairie: grass (g)g W hh ca = Prairie grass with shrubs: grass (g), Willow (W), hardhack (hh), crabapple (ca)sg sw s = Salt marsh: saltgrass (g), saltwort (sw), sedge(s)

Special Notes:Underlined species = dominant

[Bracketed species] = minor occurence

Capitalized species = part of tree canopy, not capitalized = understory


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Burns Bog

Watershed Park

SWMA

Note: See p. 331-332 in Geography: An Integrated Approach for a further description of podzols or podsols.


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Note: Source for the previous four slides

North, M.E.A., and M.W. Dunn. Environment Canada. Lands Directorate. Vegetation of Southwestern Fraser Lowland 1858-1880 (Poster). Canada: Minister of Supply and Services Canada, 1979.


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Watershed Park

SWMA

Underlying Geologic Materials near the surface


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Underlying Geologic Materials

Burns Bog Modern Sediments in Lowlands(<10 000 years old): 2: Peat

Watershed Park Ice Age Sediments in Uplands(25 000 to 11 000 years ago): 6: Silt and clay9: Till 10: Steepland sediments 7: Sand

Serpentine Wilderness Management Area Modern Sediments in Lowlands (<10 000 years old):4: Sand and silt2: Peat (on fringes)


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Note: Source for the previous two slides

Turner, Bob. Geomap Vancouver. Feb. 11, 2008

<http://gsc.nrcan.gc.ca/urbgeo/geomapvan/index_e.php>.


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To what extent have humans altered these three sites since the late 1800s? - Consider preparation exercise readings and Burns Bog information on Mr. Mlezivas website.

So what actually will we be doing on the day of the field study????


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The Tasks


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Field Study Weather ConditionsTime

Temperature

Air Pressure

Wind Direction

Wind Speed

Sky Cover (Fraction out of 8)Cloud Type(s)

Present State of Weather

Explanation


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Go Through the Checklist of Items that you need to bring to ensure that you are prepared.


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Research Question: Which key factor(s) account for the significant differences in vegetation types between the Delta Nature Reserve (Burns Bog), Watershed Park, and the Serpentine Wildlife Management Area?

Hypothesis: You design one. Based upon your preparation exercise readings and exercises and looking over the Factors Affecting Biomes web, hypothesize as to the main factor(s) determining the differences in vegetation type.


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  • Determining Our Transect Locations Ideally:

  • Random Sampling Technique Random AreaRead p.160-161 in Geography: An Integrated Approach- Place a grid over the site and draw from a hat the coordinates that the transect will be located in

Advantage: Avoid bias. Every point or area of the total population has an equal chance of being selected.

Disadvantage: Careful sample design is needed to avoid the possibility of achieving misleading results when sampling over a large area.


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  • Limitations for this field study:

  • Safety concerns (i.e. slope at Watershed Park)

  • - Areas that are off limits due to wildlife management(i.e. Serpentine Wilderness Area)

  • Limiting our impact on a sensitive ecosystem (i.e. stay near boardwalks in Burns Bog + central bog closed to the public)

  • - Time and money (i.e. soil testing kits, bus rentals); ideally, we would want to do much more than just two transects for each site to better reflect the nature of the total population.


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  • General Site Conditions:

  • Plot site on map + compass (show north)- Study Site Area for Tree Survey Transect = 400m2- Study Site Area for Detailed Vegetation Identification Transect = 32 m2- Time- GPS coordinates - Elevation- Slope- Orientation of the Slope (aspect)- Average Annual Temp. - Avg. Annual Precip.- Notation of special conditions / activities or features in and around the study area i.e. farming, tourism, etc.


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Tree Survey Transect

20 m

20 m

  • Count the total number of trees within the transect, identify the types, and measure circumferences

  • Bring your My Burns Bog Plant Book Prep packet, Ecoscope Prep packet and Plants of Coastal British Columbia handout to help you identify species Take a picture of the entire transect


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  • Detailed Vegetation Identification Transect

  • Bring your My Burns Bog Plant Book Prep packet, Ecoscope Prep packet and Plants of Coastal British Columbia handout to help you identify species

  • Total Study Area = 16m by 2m Transect = 32m2

  • Work with a partner in an assigned quadrat (2m by 2m square); using sticks and strings, divide your 4m2 quadrat into four quarters to make analysis easier.

2m

Qu.#1

Qu.#2

Qu.#3

Qu.#4

Qu.#5

Qu.#6

Qu.#7

Qu.#8

16m


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In your assigned quadrat, identify each vegetation species within the entire quadrat and give a description. Refer to your Plant Guides for assistance. In the description, also include the approximate height in cm (metre stick) of each species and measure the circumference of any trees in cm (use tape measure and/or string and metre stick). Also include % of surface coverage for each species within your quadrat.


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Sketch the area occupied by each vegetation species within your quadrat. Create a key and symbol for each species. (Note: The example shown below uses more squares than you will use and has some different species than you will find.)


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Take pictures of your quadrat remember to put something into the picture for scale (eg clipboard).

Take picture(s) of the entire transect have a person in the picture for scale.

Take a picture looking upwards at the top of the canopy (if present) to give a sense of the amount of light intensity. Note: We will try to measure the actual light intensity using a light metre placed in the ground in each quadrat.


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  • Describe soil conditions colour, composition, texture. Is it mineral based or organic based? Take a picture.

  • We will dig two holes at each site (as close as possible to Quadrats 1 and 8) to expose a profile for the soil and try to reach the water table and take a pH strip reading at the water table. Take a picture. We will collect two soil samples from each of these profiles four inches (10 cm) below the surface (as instructed by the soil testing kit) and later test for pH, nitrogen, phosphorous, and potash content.

  • We will take three pH meter readings in each quadrat and average the data for each quadrat. These readings will be consistently taken from the middle and towards opposite sides of each quadrat . This is called Systematic Sampling (see p.161-162). Advantage: Ease of use.Disadvantage: All points do not have an equal chance of selection it may either overstress or miss an underlying pattern.


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  • We will also, if available, get a pH reading for sitting water in or around the transect.

  • We will also later test for moisture content via a drying process and measuring mass before and after. In particular we will want to see if peat is indeed composed of 90% water and 10% solids and how do the peat samples differ from samples at the other sites.


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  • We will also take a couple samples of sphagnum mass to test if it does hold 20 times its mass in water.


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- Also consider based on the plants present in the transect whether or not this is a productive site nitrogen rich.Note: Later on, look at the packet entitled Indicator Plants of Coastal BC.

Labrador Tea (Ledum groenlandicum) = indicator of nitrogen-poor soil


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Serpentine Wildlife Management Area


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Task List (Thursday Sept. 22, 2011)

  • Fix long sticks and strings (16m) for Detailed Vegetation Identification Transects check for 1m labelled intervals- Fix small sticks and string: measure each 2.2m long and re-tie

  • - Measure out four 20m long strings attached to sticks for the Tree Survey Transect- Test ph, soil moisture, and light intensity metres for consistency

  • - need six people


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Task List (Saturday Sept. 24, 2011)

Quadrat #1:

Quadrat #2:

Quadrat #3:

Quadrat #4:

Quadrat #5:

Quadrat #6:

Quadrat #7:

Quadrat #8:

Tree Survey Transect: - need eight people


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  • carrying sticks and buckets + assisting teachers in setting up and taking down the transects (i.e. 16m long string and sticks) [Note: Everyone is responsible for taking down and furling their own short strings and sticks]: need four people

  • - ph, soil moisture, and light intensity metres measurements: need six people - carrying shovels and digging soil profile holes near Quadrats 1 and 8, testing pH (using pH paper) of water table and / or nearby sitting water, and collecting soil samples 4 inches (10 cm) below the surface: need two people- Lat. and Long. + elevation: GoogleEarth in class

Task List continued (Saturday Sept. 24, 2011)


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Run = 16m m

Level

Y2

Y1

Ground

Rise = Y1 Y2

- Slope calculation using 16m long string + sticks and a level: need six people

- Sphagnum Collection: Mr. Mleziva


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Task List (Sunday Sept. 25, 2011)

Quadrat #1:

Quadrat #2:

Quadrat #3:

Quadrat #4:

Quadrat #5:

Quadrat #6:

Quadrat #7:

Quadrat #8:

Tree Survey Transect: - need eight people


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  • carrying sticks + buckets +assisting teachers in setting up and taking down the transects (i.e. 16m long string and sticks) [Note: Everyone is responsible for taking down and furling their own short strings and sticks]: need four people

  • - ph, soil moisture, and light intensity metres measurements: need six people- carrying shovels and digging soil profile holes near Quadrats 1 and 7, testing pH (using pH paper) of water table and / or nearby sitting water, and collecting soil samples 4 inches (10 cm) below the surface: need two people- Lat. and Long. coordinates and elevation: GoogleEarth in class

Task List continued (Sunday Sept. 25, 2011)


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Run = 16m

Level

Y2

Y1

Ground

Rise = Y1 Y2

- Slope calculation using 16m long string + sticks and a level: need six people

- Sphagnum Collection: Mr. Mleziva


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Task List (Tues.-Thurs. Sept. 28 to 30)

  • Soil sample testing for pH, nitrogen, phosphorous, and potash (Tues. and Wed.) and Measuring mass of soil samples and sphagnum moss samples before (Tues.) and after drying (Thurs.):

  • need four people


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Friday Sept. 30 (2:15 pm to 3:15pm) After School Frequency of Vegetation Calculation Meeting at least one member of each pairing must be present with your data.


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