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Human Responsibility for Environmental Conservation - Conservation in Hong Kong






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Human Responsibility for Environmental Conservation - Conservation in Hong Kong. Dr Benny Chan and Dr Billy Hau Department of Ecology & Biodiversity The University of Hong Kong. Learning Support Centres. http://ecology.hku.hk/jupas For downloads of the PowerPoint file and web-based resources.
Human Responsibility for Environmental Conservation - Conservation in Hong Kong

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Slide 1

Human Responsibility for Environmental Conservation- Conservation in Hong Kong

Dr Benny Chan and Dr Billy Hau

Department of Ecology & Biodiversity

The University of Hong Kong

Slide 2

Learning Support Centres

  • http://ecology.hku.hk/jupas

  • For downloads of the PowerPoint file and web-based resources

Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations

Slide 3

Ecology

  • Study the interactions of organisms and the environment

  • Conservation

Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations

Slide 4

Aims

Conservation in Hong Kong:

  • Env. laws in protecting endangered species

  • Site of Special Scientific Interest (SSSI)

  • Country parks

  • Marine parks/Marine reserves

  • Wetlands and RAMSAR convention

  • Artificial coral reef and fisheries

  • Pollution controls and industrial health

Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations

Slide 5

Animals and Plants (protection of endangered species ordinance) Cap. 187

  • 1973 enforce with CITES

  • 187 countries applied

  • Restrict trading of live, dead or products of endangered species listed in cap 187

  • Endangered species education centre

Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations

Slide 6

Wild animals Protection Ordinance (Cap 170)

  • Protect collection and hunting of wild animals

  • AFCD web-site

Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations

Slide 7

Town planning ordinance (Cap 131)

  • Divide the land use into 4 different zones:

    • Residential, commercial, industrial

    • Green belt – visual and noise screening

    • Site of Special Scientific Interest (SSSI)

    • Conservation areas – more sensitive areas – separate SSI from active development

    • Country Park

    • Coastal Protection Area – high quality and scenic coastline

Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations

Slide 8

Site of special scientific interest SSSI

  • Conservation of biodiversity

  • First step: to identify areas that have high biodiversity

  • Town planning ordinance in 1975

  • Areas that contain important/special species for scientific studies are listed as Site of Special Scientific interest

Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations

Slide 9

What is the aim of SSSI?

  • Urbanization and development can destroy a large amount of habitats – including areas that may contain rare or endangered species.

  • To assign an area as SSSI is to draw attention when development will involve the destruction of those areas

Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations

Slide 10

Where can we find SSSI in Hong Kong?

  • 64 SSI have been designated

  • Cape d’Aguilar – two rare trees – Keleleeriafortunei – SSI

  • Yim Tsao Ha, Sha Tau Kok – important breeding grounds for egrets.

  • Mai Po – gei wai and important wetlands for supporting species of wildlife.

Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations

Slide 11

Conservation status of SSSI

  • Not all SSIs are receive legal protection

  • Only those covered by the Town Planning ordinance are protected by restricting land use.

  • Environmental Impact Assessment ordinance (EIAO) – potential impacts of the construction near or inside the SSI must be assessed

Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations

Slide 12

Limitation of SSSI

  • SSI that are not in Town Planning Ordinance are serve as administrative purpose only

  • No regular monitoring and management of SSI

  • No monitoring of unauthorized developments

  • No clear boundary of SSI

Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations

Slide 13

Country parks and nature reserves – Country parks ordinance (Cap 208)

  • Country parks ordinance in 1976:

    • To protect water catchment area, nature conservation and provide recreational space for population

    • 23 country parks and 15 special areas

Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations

Slide 14

Tai Po Kau Nature Reserve

Source:http://www.afcd.gov.hk

Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations

Slide 15

Biodiversity Hot spots

  • Area with highest species counted in the taxa

  • How well are the hotspots are protected in Hong Kong?

  • Target species?

  • Criteria in selecting sites for conservation in Hong Kong

Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations

Slide 16

How well do hot spots protected?

Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations

Slide 17

Identifying gaps

  • Identify target species and their hot spot sites:

    • Endemic to HK

    • Global/region distribution restricted

    • China Red Data Book as endangered species

    • Native species

Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations

Slide 18

Hong Kong Marine habitats

Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations

Slide 19

Threats to marine biodiversity

  • Trawling impact on seabeds

  • Illegal use of explosives to catch fishes

  • Reclamation

  • Pollution

  • Overfishing

Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations

Slide 20

Development of the marine parks ordinance (Cap 476)

  • From 1975, there are 27 SSI are coastal habitats

  • Marine parks and Reserves Working group – marine ecologist, government officials and fisherman representatives.

  • 1995, Marine Parks Ordinance – framework for marine parks and marine reserve designation and management

Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations

Slide 21

Marine parks and reserves

Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations

Source:http://www.afcd.gov.hk

Slide 22

Yan Chau Tong

  • A variety of landscape – mudflats and rocky shores

  • Target protect species:

    • stony corals and sea grass Zostrea japonica

Source:http://www.afcd.gov.hk

Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations

Slide 23

Hoi Ha Wan

  • Sheltered bay with clean water quality

  • Protection of coral communities and mangroves

  • Trawling are not allowed, Fishing – permit system

Source:http://www.afcd.gov.hk

Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations

Slide 24

Lung Kwu Chau and Sha Chau

  • Western waters

  • Low salinity – Pearl River discharge

  • Protection target: Chinese white dolphin

Source:http://www.afcd.gov.hk

Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations

Slide 25

Source:http://www.afcd.gov.hk

Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations

Slide 26

Tung Ping Chau

  • Small island at the eastern waters of Hong Kong

  • Protection target: Coral communities and seaweed beds

Source:http://www.afcd.gov.hk

Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations

Slide 27

Cape d’Aguilar Marine reserves

  • What are marine reserves?

  • “no take” area

  • Restricted area and inhibit all activities involved in collection of organisms or harmful to the habitat.

Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations

Slide 28

Cape d’Aguilar

Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations

Slide 29

Shores around Cape d’Aguilar

Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations

Slide 30

Zonation patterns

Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations

Slide 31

Field Trip (18/1/2003)

  • Gathering point – 10:00 am – Ground floor of Kadoorie Biological Sciences Building

  • 11:00 – Bus arrive Cape d’Aguilar

  • 11:00 – 13:00 – Conducting transects surveys

  • 13:00 – 14:00 – Lunch time and free activities

  • 14:00 – Bus leaves Cape d’Aguilar

Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations

Slide 32

Green turtles

  • Green turtle – highly endangered species – CITES, protected under the Wild Animals Protection Ordinance

  • Green turtles return to the beach to breed where they hatched

  • Green turtles – lay eggs two or three times a season in every three years.

  • Juveniles – low survival rate – predation and natural mortality

Source:http://www.afcd.gov.hk

Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations

Slide 33

Protection of green turtles

  • Breeding site at Sham Wan – South of Lamma island

  • 12 times between July – November, 1998.

  • 4 females may possible involved.

  • Designated as restricted area from 1/6 – 31/10.

  • AFCD – patrol the breach – remove the eggs and incubated artificially and release the hatching to the sea

Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations

Slide 34

Horseshoe crabs

Source:http://www.afcd.gov.hk

Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations

Slide 35

Horseshoe crabs

  • Tachypleus tridentatus, T. gigas and Carcinoscorpius rotundicauda

  • Living fossils

  • Distribute in the western waters of Hong Kong – mudflats

  • Summer – adults migrate to the mudflats to breed and lay eggs

Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations

Slide 36

Threats to horseshoe crabs

  • Coastal development – destruction of nursery grounds

  • Overfishing

  • Pollution of their breeding beaches

Source:http://www.afcd.gov.hk

Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations

Slide 37

Pak Nai – be include in marine parks or marine reserve?

  • Villager of Pak Nai reported >100 horseshoe crabs invade the mud flat of Deep Bay in summer in the past.

  • Today – horseshoe crabs are very rare in HK.

  • Pak Nai – Construction of two large bridges to link with China

Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations

Slide 38

Finless porpoise

Source:http://www.afcd.gov.hk

Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations

Slide 39

Distribution in Hong Kong

Source:http://www.afcd.gov.hk

Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations

Slide 40

Threats

  • Pollution – high DDT and PCB in tissues

  • Vehicle collision

  • Ghost nets – trapped and dead

Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations

Slide 41

Conservation

  • Protected in Wild Animals Protection Ordinance

  • Include more areas as marine parks in south west Lantau and South Lamma

  • CITES – highest protection

  • Enhance disposal system – upgrade of marine water quality

Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations

Slide 42

Artificial reefs:

  • Artificial submerged structure to provide a variety of habitats of fish to aggregate.

  • It also provide surface for fouling organisms to settler to enhance the biodiversity of the habitats.

  • Aims to enhance fishery resources and inhibit trawling

Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations

Slide 43

Types of AR – vessels

Source:http://www.afcd.gov.hk

Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations

Slide 44

Custom – build structure

Source:http://www.afcd.gov.hk

Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations

Slide 45

3 layered pyramid

Source:http://www.afcd.gov.hk

Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations

Slide 46

Pier pilings

Source:http://www.afcd.gov.hk

Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations

Slide 47

Concrete structures

Source:http://www.afcd.gov.hk

Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations

Slide 48

Steel structures

Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations

Source:http://www.afcd.gov.hk

Slide 49

Locations of AR deployments

Source:http://www.afcd.gov.hk

Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations

Slide 50

Are AR useful?

  • The ‘production theory’ and the ‘Attraction theory’

  • AR will enhance fishery resources if there is a limitation in habitats – insufficient habitats for newly recruited fish to settle.

  • AR will not enhance fishery if Recruitment is limited – too few recruits to colonize the habitats – surplus of habitat.

Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations

Slide 51

Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations

Slide 52

Marine reserve

Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations

Slide 53

Wetlands

  • Areas including lowlands and floodplains with water that is brackish or freshwater or seawater

  • Marshes, mangroves, fish ponds and estuaries

Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations

Slide 54

Wetlands in Hong Kong

Source:http://www.afcd.gov.hk

Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations

Slide 55

Outwelling theory

  • Mangroves and salt marshes – export of plant detritus/dissolved organic matters/nutrients to support offshore consumers

  • Enhance secondary productivity

  • First proposed by E.P. Odum – on salt marshes

Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations

Slide 56

Outwelling evidence

Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations

Slide 57

Detritus food chain

  • Nutrients – absorbed by mangrove plants – leaf litter – consumed by detritivores and enter higher level of the food chain

Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations

Slide 58

Conservation of Wetlands

  • The Ramsar conventions on wetlands

  • Global inter-government treaty on conservation and wise use of wetlands

  • Wetlands “areas of marsh, fen, peat land or water, whether natural or artificial, permanent or temporary, with water that is static or flowing, fresh, brackish or salt, including areas of marine water the depth of which at low tides does not exceed six metres”.

  • Mai Po marshes – Ramsar site

Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations

Slide 59

Replantation of mangroves

  • Hong Kong – replantation serve as 2 functions:

    • Compensation for the loss due to construction

    • Education purposes

Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations

Slide 60

Pollution and industrial health

  • Control of water pollution:

  • Water Pollution Control Ordinance

  • Divide the Hong Kong waters into 10 zones and each zone has its own water quality objectives

Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations

Slide 61

Air Pollution Control

  • Air Pollution Control Ordinance

    • Control the use of asbestos

    • Air quality objectives for seven air pollutants including Sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide etc.

  • Ozone Layer Protection Ordinance

    • Stop the use and import of CFCs, Hydrobromo flurocarbon (HBFC), Carbon tetrachloride.

Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations

Slide 62

EIA ordinance

  • Designated projects must follow the EIA process before the constructions taking place

Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations

Slide 63

Glasson et al. 1999. Introduction to EIA. Second edition. UCL Press

The EIA process

Proposal profile

Screening

No EIA

Scoping

Public input

Impact assessment

Monitoring & mitigation

Review

Public input

Rejected

Decision making

Monitoring & audit

Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations

Slide 64

Aims

Conservation in Hong Kong:

  • Nature reserves

  • Site of Special Scientific Interest (SSSI)

  • Country parks

  • Marine parks/Marine reserves

  • Wetlands and RAMSAR convention

  • Artificial coral reef and fisheries

  • Pollution controls and industrial health

Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations


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