Advertisement
1 / 64

Human Responsibility for Environmental Conservation - Conservation in Hong Kong


Human Responsibility for Environmental Conservation - Conservation in Hong Kong. Dr Benny Chan and Dr Billy Hau Department of Ecology & Biodiversity The University of Hong Kong. Learning Support Centres. http://ecology.hku.hk/jupas For downloads of the PowerPoint file and web-based resources.

Presentation posted in : General

Download Presentation

Human Responsibility for Environmental Conservation - Conservation in Hong Kong

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other sites. SlideServe reserves the right to change this policy at anytime.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.











- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -




Presentation Transcript


Human responsibility for environmental conservation conservation in hong kong l.jpg

Human Responsibility for Environmental Conservation- Conservation in Hong Kong

Dr Benny Chan and Dr Billy Hau

Department of Ecology & Biodiversity

The University of Hong Kong


Learning support centres l.jpg

Learning Support Centres

  • http://ecology.hku.hk/jupas

  • For downloads of the PowerPoint file and web-based resources

Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations


Ecology l.jpg

Ecology

  • Study the interactions of organisms and the environment

  • Conservation

Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations


Slide4 l.jpg

Aims

Conservation in Hong Kong:

  • Env. laws in protecting endangered species

  • Site of Special Scientific Interest (SSSI)

  • Country parks

  • Marine parks/Marine reserves

  • Wetlands and RAMSAR convention

  • Artificial coral reef and fisheries

  • Pollution controls and industrial health

Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations


Animals and plants protection of endangered species ordinance cap 187 l.jpg

Animals and Plants (protection of endangered species ordinance) Cap. 187

  • 1973 enforce with CITES

  • 187 countries applied

  • Restrict trading of live, dead or products of endangered species listed in cap 187

  • Endangered species education centre

Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations


Wild animals protection ordinance cap 170 l.jpg

Wild animals Protection Ordinance (Cap 170)

  • Protect collection and hunting of wild animals

  • AFCD web-site

Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations


Town planning ordinance cap 131 l.jpg

Town planning ordinance (Cap 131)

  • Divide the land use into 4 different zones:

    • Residential, commercial, industrial

    • Green belt – visual and noise screening

    • Site of Special Scientific Interest (SSSI)

    • Conservation areas – more sensitive areas – separate SSI from active development

    • Country Park

    • Coastal Protection Area – high quality and scenic coastline

Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations


Site of special scientific interest sssi l.jpg

Site of special scientific interest SSSI

  • Conservation of biodiversity

  • First step: to identify areas that have high biodiversity

  • Town planning ordinance in 1975

  • Areas that contain important/special species for scientific studies are listed as Site of Special Scientific interest

Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations


What is the aim of sssi l.jpg

What is the aim of SSSI?

  • Urbanization and development can destroy a large amount of habitats – including areas that may contain rare or endangered species.

  • To assign an area as SSSI is to draw attention when development will involve the destruction of those areas

Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations


Where can we find sssi in hong kong l.jpg

Where can we find SSSI in Hong Kong?

  • 64 SSI have been designated

  • Cape d’Aguilar – two rare trees – Keleleeriafortunei – SSI

  • Yim Tsao Ha, Sha Tau Kok – important breeding grounds for egrets.

  • Mai Po – gei wai and important wetlands for supporting species of wildlife.

Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations


Conservation status of sssi l.jpg

Conservation status of SSSI

  • Not all SSIs are receive legal protection

  • Only those covered by the Town Planning ordinance are protected by restricting land use.

  • Environmental Impact Assessment ordinance (EIAO) – potential impacts of the construction near or inside the SSI must be assessed

Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations


Limitation of sssi l.jpg

Limitation of SSSI

  • SSI that are not in Town Planning Ordinance are serve as administrative purpose only

  • No regular monitoring and management of SSI

  • No monitoring of unauthorized developments

  • No clear boundary of SSI

Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations


Country parks and nature reserves country parks ordinance cap 208 l.jpg

Country parks and nature reserves – Country parks ordinance (Cap 208)

  • Country parks ordinance in 1976:

    • To protect water catchment area, nature conservation and provide recreational space for population

    • 23 country parks and 15 special areas

Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations


Tai po kau nature reserve l.jpg

Tai Po Kau Nature Reserve

Source:http://www.afcd.gov.hk

Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations


Biodiversity hot spots l.jpg

Biodiversity Hot spots

  • Area with highest species counted in the taxa

  • How well are the hotspots are protected in Hong Kong?

  • Target species?

  • Criteria in selecting sites for conservation in Hong Kong

Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations


How well do hot spots protected l.jpg

How well do hot spots protected?

Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations


Identifying gaps l.jpg

Identifying gaps

  • Identify target species and their hot spot sites:

    • Endemic to HK

    • Global/region distribution restricted

    • China Red Data Book as endangered species

    • Native species

Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations


Slide18 l.jpg

Hong Kong Marine habitats

Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations


Threats to marine biodiversity l.jpg

Threats to marine biodiversity

  • Trawling impact on seabeds

  • Illegal use of explosives to catch fishes

  • Reclamation

  • Pollution

  • Overfishing

Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations


Development of the marine parks ordinance cap 476 l.jpg

Development of the marine parks ordinance (Cap 476)

  • From 1975, there are 27 SSI are coastal habitats

  • Marine parks and Reserves Working group – marine ecologist, government officials and fisherman representatives.

  • 1995, Marine Parks Ordinance – framework for marine parks and marine reserve designation and management

Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations


Marine parks and reserves l.jpg

Marine parks and reserves

Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations

Source:http://www.afcd.gov.hk


Yan chau tong l.jpg

Yan Chau Tong

  • A variety of landscape – mudflats and rocky shores

  • Target protect species:

    • stony corals and sea grass Zostrea japonica

Source:http://www.afcd.gov.hk

Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations


Hoi ha wan l.jpg

Hoi Ha Wan

  • Sheltered bay with clean water quality

  • Protection of coral communities and mangroves

  • Trawling are not allowed, Fishing – permit system

Source:http://www.afcd.gov.hk

Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations


Lung kwu chau and sha chau l.jpg

Lung Kwu Chau and Sha Chau

  • Western waters

  • Low salinity – Pearl River discharge

  • Protection target: Chinese white dolphin

Source:http://www.afcd.gov.hk

Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations


Slide25 l.jpg

Source:http://www.afcd.gov.hk

Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations


Tung ping chau l.jpg

Tung Ping Chau

  • Small island at the eastern waters of Hong Kong

  • Protection target: Coral communities and seaweed beds

Source:http://www.afcd.gov.hk

Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations


Cape d aguilar marine reserves l.jpg

Cape d’Aguilar Marine reserves

  • What are marine reserves?

  • “no take” area

  • Restricted area and inhibit all activities involved in collection of organisms or harmful to the habitat.

Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations


Cape d aguilar l.jpg

Cape d’Aguilar

Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations


Shores around cape d aguilar l.jpg

Shores around Cape d’Aguilar

Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations


Zonation patterns l.jpg

Zonation patterns

Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations


Field trip 18 1 2003 l.jpg

Field Trip (18/1/2003)

  • Gathering point – 10:00 am – Ground floor of Kadoorie Biological Sciences Building

  • 11:00 – Bus arrive Cape d’Aguilar

  • 11:00 – 13:00 – Conducting transects surveys

  • 13:00 – 14:00 – Lunch time and free activities

  • 14:00 – Bus leaves Cape d’Aguilar

Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations


Green turtles l.jpg

Green turtles

  • Green turtle – highly endangered species – CITES, protected under the Wild Animals Protection Ordinance

  • Green turtles return to the beach to breed where they hatched

  • Green turtles – lay eggs two or three times a season in every three years.

  • Juveniles – low survival rate – predation and natural mortality

Source:http://www.afcd.gov.hk

Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations


Protection of green turtles l.jpg

Protection of green turtles

  • Breeding site at Sham Wan – South of Lamma island

  • 12 times between July – November, 1998.

  • 4 females may possible involved.

  • Designated as restricted area from 1/6 – 31/10.

  • AFCD – patrol the breach – remove the eggs and incubated artificially and release the hatching to the sea

Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations


Horseshoe crabs l.jpg

Horseshoe crabs

Source:http://www.afcd.gov.hk

Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations


Horseshoe crabs35 l.jpg

Horseshoe crabs

  • Tachypleus tridentatus, T. gigas and Carcinoscorpius rotundicauda

  • Living fossils

  • Distribute in the western waters of Hong Kong – mudflats

  • Summer – adults migrate to the mudflats to breed and lay eggs

Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations


Threats to horseshoe crabs l.jpg

Threats to horseshoe crabs

  • Coastal development – destruction of nursery grounds

  • Overfishing

  • Pollution of their breeding beaches

Source:http://www.afcd.gov.hk

Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations


Pak nai be include in marine parks or marine reserve l.jpg

Pak Nai – be include in marine parks or marine reserve?

  • Villager of Pak Nai reported >100 horseshoe crabs invade the mud flat of Deep Bay in summer in the past.

  • Today – horseshoe crabs are very rare in HK.

  • Pak Nai – Construction of two large bridges to link with China

Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations


Finless porpoise l.jpg

Finless porpoise

Source:http://www.afcd.gov.hk

Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations


Distribution in hong kong l.jpg

Distribution in Hong Kong

Source:http://www.afcd.gov.hk

Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations


Threats l.jpg

Threats

  • Pollution – high DDT and PCB in tissues

  • Vehicle collision

  • Ghost nets – trapped and dead

Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations


Conservation l.jpg

Conservation

  • Protected in Wild Animals Protection Ordinance

  • Include more areas as marine parks in south west Lantau and South Lamma

  • CITES – highest protection

  • Enhance disposal system – upgrade of marine water quality

Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations


Artificial reefs l.jpg

Artificial reefs:

  • Artificial submerged structure to provide a variety of habitats of fish to aggregate.

  • It also provide surface for fouling organisms to settler to enhance the biodiversity of the habitats.

  • Aims to enhance fishery resources and inhibit trawling

Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations


Types of ar vessels l.jpg

Types of AR – vessels

Source:http://www.afcd.gov.hk

Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations


Custom build structure l.jpg

Custom – build structure

Source:http://www.afcd.gov.hk

Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations


3 layered pyramid l.jpg

3 layered pyramid

Source:http://www.afcd.gov.hk

Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations


Pier pilings l.jpg

Pier pilings

Source:http://www.afcd.gov.hk

Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations


Concrete structures l.jpg

Concrete structures

Source:http://www.afcd.gov.hk

Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations


Steel structures l.jpg

Steel structures

Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations

Source:http://www.afcd.gov.hk


Locations of ar deployments l.jpg

Locations of AR deployments

Source:http://www.afcd.gov.hk

Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations


Are ar useful l.jpg

Are AR useful?

  • The ‘production theory’ and the ‘Attraction theory’

  • AR will enhance fishery resources if there is a limitation in habitats – insufficient habitats for newly recruited fish to settle.

  • AR will not enhance fishery if Recruitment is limited – too few recruits to colonize the habitats – surplus of habitat.

Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations


Slide51 l.jpg

Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations


Marine reserve l.jpg

Marine reserve

Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations


Wetlands l.jpg

Wetlands

  • Areas including lowlands and floodplains with water that is brackish or freshwater or seawater

  • Marshes, mangroves, fish ponds and estuaries

Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations


Wetlands in hong kong l.jpg

Wetlands in Hong Kong

Source:http://www.afcd.gov.hk

Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations


Outwelling theory l.jpg

Outwelling theory

  • Mangroves and salt marshes – export of plant detritus/dissolved organic matters/nutrients to support offshore consumers

  • Enhance secondary productivity

  • First proposed by E.P. Odum – on salt marshes

Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations


Outwelling evidence l.jpg

Outwelling evidence

Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations


Detritus food chain l.jpg

Detritus food chain

  • Nutrients – absorbed by mangrove plants – leaf litter – consumed by detritivores and enter higher level of the food chain

Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations


Conservation of wetlands l.jpg

Conservation of Wetlands

  • The Ramsar conventions on wetlands

  • Global inter-government treaty on conservation and wise use of wetlands

  • Wetlands “areas of marsh, fen, peat land or water, whether natural or artificial, permanent or temporary, with water that is static or flowing, fresh, brackish or salt, including areas of marine water the depth of which at low tides does not exceed six metres”.

  • Mai Po marshes – Ramsar site

Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations


Replantation of mangroves l.jpg

Replantation of mangroves

  • Hong Kong – replantation serve as 2 functions:

    • Compensation for the loss due to construction

    • Education purposes

Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations


Pollution and industrial health l.jpg

Pollution and industrial health

  • Control of water pollution:

  • Water Pollution Control Ordinance

  • Divide the Hong Kong waters into 10 zones and each zone has its own water quality objectives

Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations


Air pollution control l.jpg

Air Pollution Control

  • Air Pollution Control Ordinance

    • Control the use of asbestos

    • Air quality objectives for seven air pollutants including Sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide etc.

  • Ozone Layer Protection Ordinance

    • Stop the use and import of CFCs, Hydrobromo flurocarbon (HBFC), Carbon tetrachloride.

Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations


Eia ordinance l.jpg

EIA ordinance

  • Designated projects must follow the EIA process before the constructions taking place

Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations


Slide63 l.jpg

Glasson et al. 1999. Introduction to EIA. Second edition. UCL Press

The EIA process

Proposal profile

Screening

No EIA

Scoping

Public input

Impact assessment

Monitoring & mitigation

Review

Public input

Rejected

Decision making

Monitoring & audit

Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations


Slide64 l.jpg

Aims

Conservation in Hong Kong:

  • Nature reserves

  • Site of Special Scientific Interest (SSSI)

  • Country parks

  • Marine parks/Marine reserves

  • Wetlands and RAMSAR convention

  • Artificial coral reef and fisheries

  • Pollution controls and industrial health

Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations