human responsibility for environmental conservation - conservation in hong kong
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1. Human Responsibility for Environmental Conservation - Conservation in Hong Kong Dr Benny Chan and Dr Billy Hau Department of Ecology & Biodiversity The University of Hong Kong

2. Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations Learning Support Centres http://ecology.hku.hk/jupas For downloads of the PowerPoint file and web-based resources

3. Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations Ecology Study the interactions of organisms and the environment Conservation

4. Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations Aims Conservation in Hong Kong: Env. laws in protecting endangered species Site of Special Scientific Interest (SSSI) Country parks Marine parks/Marine reserves Wetlands and RAMSAR convention Artificial coral reef and fisheries Pollution controls and industrial health

5. Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations Animals and Plants (protection of endangered species ordinance) Cap. 187 1973 enforce with CITES 187 countries applied Restrict trading of live, dead or products of endangered species listed in cap 187 Endangered species education centre

6. Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations Wild animals Protection Ordinance (Cap 170) Protect collection and hunting of wild animals AFCD web-site

7. Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations Town planning ordinance (Cap 131) Divide the land use into 4 different zones: Residential, commercial, industrial Green belt ? visual and noise screening Site of Special Scientific Interest (SSSI) Conservation areas ? more sensitive areas ? separate SSI from active development Country Park Coastal Protection Area ? high quality and scenic coastline

8. Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations Site of special scientific interest SSSI Conservation of biodiversity First step: to identify areas that have high biodiversity Town planning ordinance in 1975 Areas that contain important/special species for scientific studies are listed as Site of Special Scientific interest

9. Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations What is the aim of SSSI? Urbanization and development can destroy a large amount of habitats ? including areas that may contain rare or endangered species. To assign an area as SSSI is to draw attention when development will involve the destruction of those areas

10. Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations Where can we find SSSI in Hong Kong? 64 SSI have been designated Cape d?Aguilar ? two rare trees ? Keleleeria fortunei ? SSI Yim Tsao Ha, Sha Tau Kok ? important breeding grounds for egrets. Mai Po ? gei wai and important wetlands for supporting species of wildlife.

11. Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations Conservation status of SSSI Not all SSIs are receive legal protection Only those covered by the Town Planning ordinance are protected by restricting land use. Environmental Impact Assessment ordinance (EIAO) ? potential impacts of the construction near or inside the SSI must be assessed

12. Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations Limitation of SSSI SSI that are not in Town Planning Ordinance are serve as administrative purpose only No regular monitoring and management of SSI No monitoring of unauthorized developments No clear boundary of SSI

13. Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations Country parks and nature reserves ? Country parks ordinance (Cap 208) Country parks ordinance in 1976: To protect water catchment area, nature conservation and provide recreational space for population 23 country parks and 15 special areas

14. Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations Tai Po Kau Nature Reserve

15. Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations Biodiversity Hot spots Area with highest species counted in the taxa How well are the hotspots are protected in Hong Kong? Target species? Criteria in selecting sites for conservation in Hong Kong

16. Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations How well do hot spots protected?

17. Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations Identifying gaps Identify target species and their hot spot sites: Endemic to HK Global/region distribution restricted China Red Data Book as endangered species Native species

18. Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations

19. Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations Threats to marine biodiversity Trawling impact on seabeds Illegal use of explosives to catch fishes Reclamation Pollution Overfishing

20. Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations Development of the marine parks ordinance (Cap 476) From 1975, there are 27 SSI are coastal habitats Marine parks and Reserves Working group ? marine ecologist, government officials and fisherman representatives. 1995, Marine Parks Ordinance ? framework for marine parks and marine reserve designation and management

21. Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations Marine parks and reserves

22. Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations Yan Chau Tong

23. Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations Hoi Ha Wan Sheltered bay with clean water quality Protection of coral communities and mangroves Trawling are not allowed, Fishing ? permit system

24. Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations Lung Kwu Chau and Sha Chau Western waters Low salinity ? Pearl River discharge Protection target: Chinese white dolphin

25. Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations

26. Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations Tung Ping Chau Small island at the eastern waters of Hong Kong Protection target: Coral communities and seaweed beds

27. Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations Cape d?Aguilar Marine reserves What are marine reserves? ?no take? area Restricted area and inhibit all activities involved in collection of organisms or harmful to the habitat.

28. Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations Cape d?Aguilar

29. Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations Shores around Cape d?Aguilar

30. Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations Zonation patterns

31. Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations Field Trip (18/1/2003) Gathering point ? 10:00 am ? Ground floor of Kadoorie Biological Sciences Building 11:00 ? Bus arrive Cape d?Aguilar 11:00 ? 13:00 ? Conducting transects surveys 13:00 ? 14:00 ? Lunch time and free activities 14:00 ? Bus leaves Cape d?Aguilar

32. Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations Green turtles Green turtle ? highly endangered species ? CITES, protected under the Wild Animals Protection Ordinance Green turtles return to the beach to breed where they hatched Green turtles ? lay eggs two or three times a season in every three years. Juveniles ? low survival rate ? predation and natural mortality

33. Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations Protection of green turtles Breeding site at Sham Wan ? South of Lamma island 12 times between July ? November, 1998. 4 females may possible involved. Designated as restricted area from 1/6 ? 31/10. AFCD ? patrol the breach ? remove the eggs and incubated artificially and release the hatching to the sea

34. Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations Horseshoe crabs

35. Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations Horseshoe crabs Tachypleus tridentatus, T. gigas and Carcinoscorpius rotundicauda Living fossils Distribute in the western waters of Hong Kong ? mudflats Summer ? adults migrate to the mudflats to breed and lay eggs

36. Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations Threats to horseshoe crabs Coastal development ? destruction of nursery grounds Overfishing Pollution of their breeding beaches

37. Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations Pak Nai ? be include in marine parks or marine reserve? Villager of Pak Nai reported >100 horseshoe crabs invade the mud flat of Deep Bay in summer in the past. Today ? horseshoe crabs are very rare in HK. Pak Nai ? Construction of two large bridges to link with China

38. Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations Finless porpoise

39. Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations Distribution in Hong Kong

40. Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations Threats Pollution ? high DDT and PCB in tissues Vehicle collision Ghost nets ? trapped and dead

41. Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations Conservation Protected in Wild Animals Protection Ordinance Include more areas as marine parks in south west Lantau and South Lamma CITES ? highest protection Enhance disposal system ? upgrade of marine water quality

42. Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations Artificial reefs: Artificial submerged structure to provide a variety of habitats of fish to aggregate. It also provide surface for fouling organisms to settler to enhance the biodiversity of the habitats. Aims to enhance fishery resources and inhibit trawling

43. Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations Types of AR ? vessels

44. Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations Custom ? build structure

45. Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations 3 layered pyramid

46. Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations Pier pilings

47. Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations Concrete structures

48. Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations Steel structures

49. Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations Locations of AR deployments

50. Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations Are AR useful? The ?production theory? and the ?Attraction theory? AR will enhance fishery resources if there is a limitation in habitats ? insufficient habitats for newly recruited fish to settle. AR will not enhance fishery if Recruitment is limited ? too few recruits to colonize the habitats ? surplus of habitat.

51. Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations

52. Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations Marine reserve

53. Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations Wetlands Areas including lowlands and floodplains with water that is brackish or freshwater or seawater Marshes, mangroves, fish ponds and estuaries

54. Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations Wetlands in Hong Kong

55. Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations Outwelling theory Mangroves and salt marshes ? export of plant detritus/dissolved organic matters/nutrients to support offshore consumers Enhance secondary productivity First proposed by E.P. Odum ? on salt marshes

56. Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations Outwelling evidence

57. Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations Detritus food chain Nutrients ? absorbed by mangrove plants ? leaf litter ? consumed by detritivores and enter higher level of the food chain

58. Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations Conservation of Wetlands The Ramsar conventions on wetlands Global inter-government treaty on conservation and wise use of wetlands Wetlands ?areas of marsh, fen, peat land or water, whether natural or artificial, permanent or temporary, with water that is static or flowing, fresh, brackish or salt, including areas of marine water the depth of which at low tides does not exceed six metres?. Mai Po marshes ? Ramsar site

59. Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations Replantation of mangroves Hong Kong ? replantation serve as 2 functions: Compensation for the loss due to construction Education purposes

60. Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations Pollution and industrial health Control of water pollution: Water Pollution Control Ordinance Divide the Hong Kong waters into 10 zones and each zone has its own water quality objectives

61. Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations Air Pollution Control Air Pollution Control Ordinance Control the use of asbestos Air quality objectives for seven air pollutants including Sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide etc. Ozone Layer Protection Ordinance Stop the use and import of CFCs, Hydrobromo flurocarbon (HBFC), Carbon tetrachloride.

62. Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations EIA ordinance Designated projects must follow the EIA process before the constructions taking place

63. Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations

64. Ecology & Biodiversity Projects/Dissertations Aims Conservation in Hong Kong: Nature reserves Site of Special Scientific Interest (SSSI) Country parks Marine parks/Marine reserves Wetlands and RAMSAR convention Artificial coral reef and fisheries Pollution controls and industrial health


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