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General Aviation Aircraft Rescue Fire Fighting Aircraft Familiarization Training Don Elliott Columbia Regional Airport Columbia, Missouri [email protected] Types of Aircraft & Accident Statistics 78% of active civil aircraft are single engine.

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General aviation aircraft rescue fire fighting l.jpg

General AviationAircraft Rescue Fire Fighting

Aircraft Familiarization Training

Don Elliott

Columbia Regional Airport

Columbia, Missouri

[email protected]


Types of aircraft accident statistics l.jpg
Types of Aircraft & Accident Statistics

  • 78% of active civil aircraft are single engine.

  • 10% of active civil aircraft are light twin engine.

  • 12% of active civil aircraft are over 12,500 lbs.

  • 95% of all aircraft accidents occur within 10 miles of an airport.



Primary hazards l.jpg
Primary Hazards to a firefighter.

  • Fire - Class A, B, C, and D.

  • Toxic Fumes/Smoke.

  • Explosions - Ordnance/ Fuel Cells/ Cargo/ Oxygen Tanks


Aircraft terminology l.jpg

Aircraft Terminology to a firefighter.

Fixed Wing Aircraft Components


Fuselage l.jpg
Fuselage to a firefighter.

  • The main body structure of an Aircraft. Houses the crew, passengers and cargo. The wings, landing gear, and tail are attached to it.


Wings l.jpg
Wings to a firefighter.

  • Designed to develop the major portion of the lift required for heavier-than-air aircraft.


Empennage l.jpg
Empennage to a firefighter.

  • The aircraft tail assemble including the vertical and horizontal stabilizers, rudders and elevators.


Cockpit l.jpg
Cockpit to a firefighter.

  • The fuselage compartment occupied by the pilots.


Canopy l.jpg
Canopy to a firefighter.

  • Transparent enclosure over the cockpit of fighter type aircraft.


Engines l.jpg
Engines to a firefighter.

  • Power plants for the aircraft.

  • Can be- Piston, Turboprop or Jet.

  • Engines are numbered consecutively from the pilots left to right. (i.e.. 1,2,3,4)


Nacelles l.jpg
Nacelles to a firefighter.

  • The housing of an externally mounted engine.


Surfaces l.jpg
Surfaces to a firefighter.

  • General term that applies to the devices that enable the pilot to control the direction of flight and altitude.

  • Keep hands clear from movable surfaces.


Ailerons l.jpg
Ailerons to a firefighter.

  • Attached to the trailing edge of the wing.

  • Controls the roll (banking) motion of the aircraft.


Elevators l.jpg
Elevators to a firefighter.

  • Attached to the horizontal stabilizer (fin).

  • Controls the climb or descent of the aircraft.


Rudder vertical stabilizer l.jpg
Rudder (Vertical Stabilizer) to a firefighter.

  • The upright movable part of the aircraft tail assemble that assists in the directional control of the aircraft.


Flaps l.jpg
Flaps to a firefighter.

  • Attached to the trailing edge of the wings to improve aerodynamic performance during takeoff and landing.


Spoilers speed brakes l.jpg
Spoilers/Speed Brakes to a firefighter.

  • Moveable aerodynamic devices or plates on aircraft that extend into the airstream to reduce the airspeed of the aircraft by increasing drag. Used during descent and to assist slowing the aircraft.


Landing gear l.jpg
Landing Gear to a firefighter.

  • Usually of tricycle design, consists of main landing gear strut under each wing or fuselage and one nose landing gear strut. The landing gear is also used for steering and braking.


Aircraft structural materials l.jpg

Aluminum to a firefighter.

Beryllium

Steel

Wood

Magnesium

Titanium

Composite Materials

Other Materials

Aircraft Structural Materials


Aluminum aluminum alloys l.jpg
Aluminum & Aluminum Alloys to a firefighter.

  • Lightweight material used in sheets for skin surfaces, as channels and castings for framework.

  • Light gray appearance or silver when polished.

  • Does not withstand heat well, melts at approx.. 1,200 F.


Beryllium l.jpg
Beryllium to a firefighter.

  • Used on aircraft brakes system.

  • Resembles magnesium in color.

  • May produce an irritating or poisonous gas when involved in a fire.

  • SCBA must be worn when fighting fires involving beryllium.


Steel l.jpg
Steel to a firefighter.

  • Used in aircraft engine parts, around engine nacelles, engine fire walls , and tubing.

  • Presents no fire hazard, but may contribute to the fire by sparking if friction is created.

  • Heavy metal but is useful in high heat or tolerance areas.


Slide24 l.jpg
Wood to a firefighter.

  • Used in older aircraft in structural areas such as wings spars, wing ribs and bulkheads.

  • Most common use is when combined with tubular steel framing with wooden components.


Combustible conventional metal materials l.jpg

Combustible Conventional Metal Materials to a firefighter.

magnesium and titanium are the most common combustible metals used in aircraft.


Magnesium l.jpg
Magnesium to a firefighter.

  • Strong and lightweight material used in landing gear, wheels, engines mountings brackets, crankcase sections, cover plates, and other engine parts. Generally used in areas where forcible entry will not be required.


Magnesium27 l.jpg
Magnesium to a firefighter.

  • The appearance of this metal is silvery-white or grayish in color.

  • Very hard to ignite but once ignited, it burns intensely and is difficult to extinguish.

  • Poses as a serious re-ignition source.


Magnesium28 l.jpg
Magnesium to a firefighter.

  • The ease of ignition depends primarily on its mass (thickness & shape). Ignition temperature is generally considered to be close to its melting point of 1202 degrees F.

  • When specialized extinguishing agents are not available, dry sand may be used to cover and smoother the fire.


Magnesium29 l.jpg
Magnesium to a firefighter.


Titanium l.jpg
Titanium to a firefighter.

  • Silver-gray material that is as strong as ordinary steel but is 56% lighter.

  • Used primarily in engine parts, around engine nacelles, engine fire walls, and turbine blades. Also used to reinforce skin surfaces to protect them from impinging exhaust flame or heat.


Titanium31 l.jpg
Titanium to a firefighter.

  • Its ignition temperature is generally considered to be close to its melting temperature of 3,140 degrees F.

  • The metal burns with intensity and resist extinguishment much like magnesium.


Composite materials l.jpg

Composite Materials to a firefighter.

Carbon/Graphite

Boron/Tungsten


Carbon graphite fibers l.jpg
Carbon/Graphite Fibers to a firefighter.

  • Provide a superior stiffness, high strength-to-weight ratio, and ease of fabrication.

  • Used extensively in modern aircraft to replace heavier components.


Carbon graphite fibers38 l.jpg
Carbon/Graphite Fibers to a firefighter.

  • Epoxy fibers will begin to deteriorate or burn at approximately 725 degrees F. A severe contamination hazard is considered likely when the fibers become airborne.

  • Once free, these small fibers can be transported up to several miles by air currents and can cause damage to unprotected electrical equipment.


Boron tungsten l.jpg
Boron/Tungsten to a firefighter.

  • Boron fibers to provide superior stiffness, high strength-to-weight ratio, and ease of fabrication.

  • Boron fibers can be released if their epoxy binder burns.

  • They can be extremely sharp and present a hazard during salvage and overhaul operations.


Other materials l.jpg
Other Materials to a firefighter.

  • Fine fibers embedded in carbon/epoxy materials.

  • The fibers are usually made of fiberglass, aramid, Kevlar epoxy, Kevlar graphite or carbon in the form of graphite.

  • Produce a highly toxic gas when heated, even when no flame is noticeable.


Types of engines l.jpg
Types of Engines to a firefighter.


Piston engine l.jpg
Piston Engine to a firefighter.

  • Single or twin engine aircraft.

  • Horizontally opposed air cooled engine.

  • Avgas


Piston engine43 l.jpg
Piston Engine to a firefighter.

  • Single or twin engine aircraft.

  • Radial air cooled engine.

  • Avgas


Turboprop engines l.jpg
Turboprop Engines to a firefighter.

  • Propeller geared to a small turbojet engine.

  • Used widely in small and medium sized passenger aircraft.


Turboprop engines45 l.jpg
Turboprop Engines to a firefighter.

  • Easily distinguished form piston aircraft.

  • Cylindrically shaped engine nacelle.

  • Large exhaust ports.


Turboprop engines46 l.jpg
Turboprop Engines to a firefighter.

  • Some engines produce 80% of thrust at the prop and 20% thrust from the jet exhaust.

  • Turboprop engines use Jet “A” fuel.


Jet engines l.jpg
Jet Engines to a firefighter.

  • High power output per engine weight and size.

  • Used in large and small passenger aircraft.


Jet engines48 l.jpg
Jet Engines to a firefighter.

  • Easily distinguishable from other types of engines.

  • Civil aviation will use Jet “A” fuel.


Types of aircraft l.jpg
Types of Aircraft to a firefighter.


Single engine l.jpg
Single Engine to a firefighter.

  • Most single engine aircraft are:

  • Piston Engine

  • Unpressurized

  • Light Metal


Single engine51 l.jpg
Single Engine to a firefighter.

  • 1,200 to 6,000 pounds

  • 1 to 6 seats

  • 10 to 300 gallons Avgas


Light twin engine l.jpg
Light Twin Engine to a firefighter.

  • Most light twin engine aircraft are:

  • Piston engine

  • Unpressurized

  • Light to heavy metal


Light twin engine53 l.jpg
Light Twin Engine to a firefighter.

  • 4,000 to 10,000 pounds.

  • 4 to 8 seats.

  • 80 to 400 gallons Avgas


Heavy multi engine l.jpg
Heavy Multi-Engine to a firefighter.

  • Most Heavy Multi-Engine Aircraft are:

  • 2 to 4 turboprop engines

  • Pressurized

  • Heavy construction


Heavy multi engine55 l.jpg
Heavy Multi-Engine to a firefighter.

  • 8,000 to 55,000 pounds

  • 8 to 70 seats

  • 350 to 1,500 gallons Jet-A


Jet aircraft l.jpg
Jet Aircraft to a firefighter.

  • Most jet aircraft are:

  • 2 to 4 engine

  • Pressurized

  • Heavy construction


Jet aircraft57 l.jpg
Jet Aircraft to a firefighter.

  • 12,500 to 710,000 pounds

  • 12 to 500 seats

  • 800 to 50,000 gallons Jet-A

  • Hydraulic pressures to 3,000 P.S.I.


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