forging the national economy 1790 1860
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Forging the National Economy 1790-1860. Ch 14. Industrialization. All of the following gave rise to a more dynamic, market-oriented, national economy in early nineteenth-century America: push west in search of cheap land a vast number of European immigrants settling in the cities

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  • All of the following gave rise to a more dynamic, market-oriented, national economy in early nineteenth-century America:
    • push west in search of cheap land
    • a vast number of European immigrants settling in the cities
    • newly invented machinery
    • better roads, faster steamboats, further-reaching canals, and tentacle-stretching railroads.
the frontier
The Frontier
  • Life on the frontier was downright grim for most pioneer families.
  • Unbearable loneliness haunted them, especially women who were often cut off from human contact.
  • Pioneers as they were called felt isolated and called upon the government for help in building internal improvements.
Although life on the frontier was difficult, many like George Catlin, believed in preserving nature as a national policy.
  • His idea created the national park system like Yellowstone Park (1872).
rapid urbanization
Rapid Urbanization
  • In early-nineteenth-century America, the urban population was growing at an unprecedented rate.
  • The population was doubling every 25 years.
  • In 1790, only New York and Philadelphia had a population over 20,000. By 1860, there were 43 cities.
  • Such rapid urbanization resulted in unsanitary conditions in many communities.
the irish
The Irish
  • Potato famine (1840’s)- the Irish population depended on the potato as their main source of food.
  • When a potato rot hit the crops about ¼ of the population (2 million) died of starvation and disease.
  • The “Black Forties” as it was called led to mass exodus.
  • Ireland’s great export was its population.
  • The large influx of Catholic Irish, who continued to hate the British, led many of them to be mistreated by native workers.
  • “NINA” No Irish Need Apply was a common sign posted at factory gates.
When the Irish flocked to the United States in the 1840s, they stayed in the larger seaboard cities because they were too poor to move west and buy land.
  • When the “famine Irish” came to America, they mostly remained in the port cities of the Northeast.
  • Boston and New York became the largest Irish cities.
the german
The German
  • German immigrants in the early nineteenth century tended to preserve their own language and culture.
  • German immigrants to the United States came to escape economic hardships and autocratic government.
  • The Germans contributed the Conestoga wagon, the Christmas tree, bier, and Kindergarten to American culture.
immigrant backlash
Immigrant Backlash
  • Those who were frightened by the rapid influx of Irish immigrants organized the Order of the Star-Spangled Banner (OSSB).
  • The OSSB was an oath-bound secret society in New York. It was created in 1849 by Charles Allen to protest the rise of Irish, Catholic, and German immigration into the U.S.
  • The sentiment of fear and opposition to open immigration was called nativism.
  • Native-born Americans feared that Catholic immigrants to the United States would “establish” the Catholic church at the expense of Protestantism.
  • However, immigrants coming to the United States before 1860 helped to fuel economic expansion.
slater and whitney
Slater and Whitney
  • The “Father of the Factory System” in the United States was Samuel Slater.
  • He memorized the plans for the machinery that spins cotton thread and escaped to the U.S.
  • Eli Whitney was instrumental in the invention of the cotton gin.
  • As a result of the development of the cotton gin, slavery revived and expanded
Eli Whitney also introduced the method of mass production of muskets for the U.S. Army.
  • The principle of interchangeable parts was widely adopted in 1850 and began the basis of mass production.
  • Between 1790-1800, only 306 patents were issued, yet between 1850-1860 28,000 were issued.
  • In 1844, Samuel F. B. Morse strung a 40 mile wire from Washington to Baltimore and tapped out the historic message “What hath God Wrought?”
  • The telegraph improved the business world as well as communication with the frontier.
wage slaves
Wage Slaves
  • The early factory system distributed its benefits mostly to the owners.
  • While the owners grew rich, working people wasted away.
  • Children were also exploited. Some were brutally whipped in special “whipping rooms.”
  • The American work force in the early nineteenth century was characterized by substantial employment of women and children in factories.
labor unions
Labor Unions
  • The 1830’s and 1840’s brought many strikes asking for a ten hour work day.
  • Many workers realized that their strongest weapon was to lay down their tools and go on strike.
  • In the case of Commonwealth v. Hunt, the supreme court of Massachusetts ruled that labor unions were not illegal conspiracies.
women and the economy
Women and the Economy
  • The vast majority of working women were single.
  • Upon marriage women left their paying jobs and took up the job of wives and mothers.
  • The “cult of domesticity” glorified the traditional role of women as homemakers.
  • Women’s changing roles and the Industrial Revolution changed the life in the 19th century home.
  • Early 19th century families were getting smaller.
  • One of the goals of the child-centered family of the 1800s was to  raise independent individuals.
go west
Go West!
  • What did the wittle wabbit do after wunning awound a day wong?
  • The effect of early-nineteenth-century industrialization on the trans-Allegheny West was to encourage specialized, cash-crop agriculture.
  • With the development of cash-crop agriculture in the trans-Allegheny West,  farmers quickly faced mounting indebtedness.
  • Such inventions such as the steel plow (John Deere) and McCormick’s mechanical reaper gave way to large scale farming.
  • Before the annual harvest could move east or west, major transportation innovation had to be made.
  • In the 1790\'s a major transportation project linking the East to the trans-Allegheny West was the Lancaster Turnpike.
  • Western road building faced all of the following problems:
    • It was expensive
    • States’ rights advocates opposed
    • eastern states opposed
    • Wartime interruptions (War of 1812)
  • The “canal era” of American history began with the construction of the Erie Canal in New York.
  • Construction of the Erie Canal forced some New England farmers to move or change occupations.