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DNA The Genetic Material QUESTION Is the structure and function of DNA the same in almost all organisms? Fredrick Griffith and Transformation Hershey and Chase Show That Genes Are Made of DNA Structure of DNA Nucleotides Are the Building Blocks. There are three components to a nucleotide

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DNA

The Genetic Material

question
QUESTION

Is the structure and function of DNA the same in almost all organisms?

structure of dna nucleotides are the building blocks
Structure of DNANucleotides Are the Building Blocks.
  • There are three components to a nucleotide
    • Sugar (5 carbon)
    • Nitrogenous base

(adenine, quanine, thymine,

cytosine)

    • Phosphate group
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Prokayotes

One circular chromosome

5 million base pairs

Replicates in less than one hour

Eukaryotes

Humans have 46 chromosomes

6 billion base pairs

Replicated in a few hours

DNA is separated from most of the replication machinery by the nuclear envelop.

Both carry out replication very quickly and with tremendous accuracy – 1 error /billion nucleotides.

the bases are either purines or pyrimidines
The Bases Are Either Purines or Pyrimidines.

A always pairs with T and C always pairs with G. This is because of the number of bonds formed between the bases. Two hydrogen bonds form between A and T and three between C and G.

Write the compliment for GGCTATTGGCA.

dna replication
DNA Replication
  • Steps in replication
    • DNA helix is unwound by helicase.
    • The point where the DNA strands separate is called the replication fork (Y)
    • At the replication fork, the enzyme DNA polymerase adds bases according to the base-pairing rules.
    • Two new DNA helixes are formed.
replication begins at the origin of replication
Replication Begins at the Origin of Replication
  • Prokaryotes have only one (1) origin of replication.
  • Eukaryotes have 100’s or 1000’s of origins of replications.
  • Replication proceeds in both directions, forming a replication bubble.
  • At the ends of the replication bubble is the replication fork – a” Y shaped” region.
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DNA polymerase has the ability to proofread and make corrections if an error has been made. After proofreading the rate of errors is one per billion nucleotides.
  • There are multiple DNA replication forks in a strand of linear DNA creating replicating “bubbles.” (Without multiple replication forks, it would take 16 days to copy one DNA molecule.)
what is the energy source for replication
What Is the Energy Source for Replication?
  • The energy source is a nucleoside triphosphate.
  • This molecule is similar to ATP except the sugar is deoxyribose and the sugar in ATP is ribose.
  • The energy comes from the hydrolysis of the phosphate tail.
structure of a gene
Structure of A Gene
  • Genes are DNA –encoded information that specifies particular proteins; each gene is made of a specific sequence of nucleotides.
  • Genes are composed of coding and noncoding sequences.
    • Coding sequences are exons (code for amino acids)
    • Noncoding sequences areintrons (intervening)
telomeres
Telomeres
  • Telomeres are special nucleotide sequences located at the end of chromosomes.
  • They do not contain genes but mutliple repetitions of short nucleotide sequences (100-1000)
  • Telomerase
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