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Confucianism January 30, 2006 Layers of Chinese Religion Buddhism Confucianism Taoism Nameless religion Ancestor worship Divination (astrology, I Ching ) (from c. 100 C.E.) “Hundred Schools” during Warring States Period (c. 500-221 B.C.E) Early Kings (by 1500 B.C.E.)

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Confucianism

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Confucianism l.jpg

Confucianism

January 30, 2006


Layers of chinese religion l.jpg

Layers of Chinese Religion

  • Buddhism

  • Confucianism

  • Taoism

  • Nameless religion

    • Ancestor worship

    • Divination (astrology, I Ching)

(from c. 100 C.E.)

“Hundred Schools” during

Warring States Period

(c. 500-221 B.C.E)

Early Kings

(by 1500 B.C.E.)


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Shang Dynasty Religion(c.1700-1045 BCE)

  • Oracle Bones: Divination

    • Consultation with Shang ancestors

  • Bronzes: Worship of ancestors

    • Keep Di and Ancestor Spirits, happy

  • No creation myth

    • Instead, sage kings

    • Yao & Shun

    • Moralization of political events


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The Zhou Take Power from the Shang (c. 1045 BCE)

  • Zhou, under Shang, felt themselves more deserving of rule

  • King Wu and the Battle at Anyang

    • “Duke of Zhou” is Wu’s uncle

  • Establish doctrine of “mandate of heaven”

    • Moral and religious justification of the king/state

    • Heaven (tian) withdraws the mandate from the unjust

    • Supports strong, continuing historical/divination/ritual traditions


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Spring & Autumn (c. 800-480) and Warring States (c. 480-221) Periods

  • Fragmentation and Chaos

    • Local Strongmen call themselves “king”

    • Set up separate centers for divination and ritual

    • Increase in shi (“sure”), elite specialists in history/divination/administration

    • Eventually they form a new professional class of independent specialists—political “consultants”

  • Suggests Loss of Mandate

    • Shi try to answer the basic problem: What went wrong, and what can be done?

    • Lots of answers: “The Hundred Schools of Thought”


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The Hundred Schools of Thought

  • Linguistic & Cosmological speculation

  • Sunzi, on the Conduct of War

  • Mozi, on Universal Love & Defensive War

  • Legalists, on Absolute Rule

    • Based on this, the Qin win

  • Confucianism

  • Taoism


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Confucius (c. 550-480 B.C.E)

  • From Lu, home of the Duke of Zhou (p. 175, 7.5)

  • Early life: Travels, offers services as shi (p. 177, 1.1)

  • Later life: Returns home and teaches (p. 175, 7.7)


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Confucius’ Response to the Decline of the Chou

  • Government is rectification—making right. (p. 187, 12.17)

  • You can’t rectify if you aren’t good (p. 187, 13.6) and don’t support the good (p. 187, 2.19)

  • Decisions and rituals of state should issue from the highest authority (p. 182, 16.2)


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Ritual, Propriety, Filiality, Benevolence

  • Nobody else knows or cares about ritual & propriety (p. 182, 3.15, 17, & 18)

  • Confucius was punctilious (p. 176, 10.2, 4, 8)

  • Propriety and music are higher level skills—but humaneness and filiality come first (p. 181, 3.3)

  • Filiality/respect is a cultivated skill, a practiced attitude (p. 180-181, 2.6-7)

  • Respect is the source of benevolence (p. 177, 1.2)


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The Five Relationships:Hierarchy and Reciprocity

  • Father and son

  • Older brother and younger brother

  • Husband and wife

  • Friend and friend

  • Ruler and subject


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