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Automotive Internal Combustion Engine Classifications PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Automotive Internal Combustion Engine Classifications Engine Design Cylinder Arrangement Camshaft Location and Number Ignition Systems Combustion Chamber Designs Engine Design Reciprocating (piston) 4 stroke cycle 2 stroke cycle (not currently used in automotive applications)

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Automotive Internal Combustion Engine Classifications

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Automotive internal combustion engine classifications l.jpg

Automotive Internal Combustion Engine Classifications

  • Engine Design

  • Cylinder Arrangement

  • Camshaft Location and Number

  • Ignition Systems

  • Combustion Chamber Designs


Engine design l.jpg

Engine Design

  • Reciprocating (piston)

    • 4 stroke cycle

    • 2 stroke cycle (not currently used in automotive applications)

    • Miller cycle: differs from traditional 4 stroke by keeping intake valve open much longer

  • Rotary


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Cylinder Arrangement

  • Inline

    • 3/4/5/6 cylinder configurations

  • V-type

    • 6/8/10 cylinder configurations

  • Horizontally Opposed

    • 4/6 cylinder configurations


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Cylinder Arrangement

  • Firing Order: sequence in which cylinders fire

    • Cylinders are numbered from front to rear

    • Determined by number of cylinders and arrangement of crankshaft throws


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Camshaft Location and Number

  • Overhead Cam (OHC): cam located in cylinder head

    • SOHC: one cam for both intake and exhaust valves

    • DOHC: separate intake and exhaust cams

  • Pushrod: cam located in engine block


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Ignition Systems

  • Method for igniting air/fuel mixture

    • Spark Ignition (SI)

      • Gasoline

      • LNG

      • CNG

      • Alternative fuels

    • Compression Ignition (CI)

      • Diesel


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Combustion Chamber Designs

  • Wedge:

    • Intake and exhaust valves set in a plane

    • Spark plug located above or below valve plane

    • Cheaper manufacturing cost

  • Hemispherical (hemi):

    • Valves set in two planes

    • Spark plug located between valves

    • More efficient

    • Higher output

    • Higher manufacturing cost


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Combustion Chamber Designs

  • Non-interference (freewheeling):

    • Clearance between open valves and piston at TDC

  • Interference:

    • No clearance between open valves and piston at TDC

    • Major engine damage if cam or crank is turned independently


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