Business and the environment1
Download
1 / 24

Business and the Environment1 ESM 210 Fall 2008 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 219 Views
  • Uploaded on

Business and the Environment1 ESM 210 Fall 2008 Course Objective: Enable MESM Graduates to work with and within firms to achieve environmental and natural resource objectives. Understand the organization of a firm Factors influencing firm behavior

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Business and the Environment1 ESM 210 Fall 2008' - albert


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
Business and the environment1 l.jpg
Business and the Environment1

  • ESM 210 Fall 2008

    • Course Objective: Enable MESM Graduates to work with and within firms to achieve environmental and natural resource objectives.

      • Understand the organization of a firm

      • Factors influencing firm behavior

      • Special problems of externalities and open access


Business and the environment l.jpg
Business and the Environment

  • Debate over the social responsibility of business.

  • Firm green differentiation strategies

  • Firm innovation, supply chain management, life cycle analysis, cost control.

  • Business coordination and NGO interaction.

  • Policy interface—tax, regulation, market.


Business and the environment3 l.jpg
Business and the Environment

  • Business and the Economy.

    • Private sector is the dominant share of overall GNP (output of goods and services in the economy).

    • Take away:

      • Business structure

      • Business stakeholders

      • Business objectives


Business and the environment4 l.jpg
Business and the Environment

  • Firms are the organizational unit for the production and delivery of goods and services.

    • New—emerge in 18th century.

    • Prior to that mostly piece work and contracting out.

    • Economies of scale and specialization of labor



Business and the environment6 l.jpg
Business and the Environment

  • Alternative is market bargaining for inputs (labor, capital, production, delivery) at each segment of production. Transaction costs are generally too high so that firms exist to coordinate production. Ronald Coase, Nobel Prize 1991.


Business and the environment7 l.jpg
Business and the Environment

  • Types of firms:

    • Sole owner.

    • Partnerships.

    • Corporation.

    • Cooperatives.


Business and the environment8 l.jpg
Business and the Environment

  • Corporations.

    • Dominant form.

    • Limited liability.

    • Separate legal entity from owners (as compared to limited liability partnerships found in law firms, LLP, LLC).


Business and the environment9 l.jpg
Business and the Environment

  • Key parties:

    • Investors (share owners). 30% of the population owns stock or mutual funds. Others’ pension funds are major equity owners.

    • Employees—firms are the major employers in the economy.

    • Consumers—firms are the major providers of goods and services.


Business and the environment10 l.jpg
Business and the Environment

  • Society: R&D—firms are the major sources of applied technology and innovation. Entrepreneurship.

  • Structure

    • Share owners (individuals, mutual funds, pension funds)

    • Board of Directors (to protect the interest of share holders).


  • Business and the environment11 l.jpg
    Business and the Environment

    • Senior Management (CEO, COB, CFO)

    • Middle Management

    • Floor or lower level Management

    • Employees

    • Other input supplies

    • Customers

    • Bond and other debt holders


    Business and the environment12 l.jpg
    Business and the Environment

    • Structure varies from manufacturing to software, financial, services to legal and sole proprietorship.

    • Typical Organization:


    Business and the environment next 9 slides are adapted from www bized co uk l.jpg
    Business and the EnvironmentNext 9 slides are adapted from www.bized.co.uk



    Business and the environment15 l.jpg
    Business and the Environment

    • Market Analysis

      • Size

      • Segments

    • Marketing Strategy

      • Objectives

      • Market segmentation

      • Niche v Mass marketing

    • Market Research

      • Primary

      • Secondary

      • Elasticity of Demand







    Business and the environment21 l.jpg
    Business and the Environment

    • Objective

      • Profit maximization

        • Sum of the discounted residual of expected revenues-expected costs.

        • Most controversial aspect.


    Business and the environment22 l.jpg
    Business and the Environment

    • What is included in profit maximization?

      • Revenue considerations across product and service options.

      • Cost considerations.

      • Short term, long term. R&D

      • Opportunity cost.

      • Within legal and commercial rules


    Business and the environment23 l.jpg
    Business and the Environment

    Take Inputs

    Process/Manufacture

    Output

    Costs – Fixed and Variable

    Revenue

    Profit


    Business and the environment124 l.jpg
    Business and the Environment1

    • Why is profit maximization key for successful firm performance and survival?

    • Why is it likely to be demanded by key constituencies—investors, employees, customers?

  • Business Structure

  • Business Stakeholders

  • Business Objectives


  • ad