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Environmental Sustainability Initiatives Panel: Water Conservation and Reuse

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Environmental Sustainability Initiatives Panel: Water Conservation and Reuse

Dr. Brian Kiepper Biological & Agricultural Engineering Poultry Science College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences The University of Georgia

animal ag sustainability
Animal Ag Sustainability

1. Environmental

2. Economic

understanding water use

1. Environmental

Understanding Water Use

What is Water USE?

any in-stream or off-stream utilization of surface or ground water

What is NON-CONSUMPTIVE USE?

What is CONSUMPTIVE USE?

the withdrawal of surface or ground water WITH RETURN to the basin of origin

the withdrawal of surface or ground water WITHOUT RETURN to the basin of origin

slide4

GCSWMP

“The Plan”

poultry processing water use

1. Environmental

Poultry Processing Water Use

As is typical of many food processing industries, poultry processing is characterized by relatively high water use, most of it for non-consumptive purposes (Kroyer, 1991).

Kroyer G., 1991. Food Processing Wastes. In: Bioconversion of Waste Materials to Industrial Products. A. M. Martin (Editor). Elsevier Applied Science, New York, New York. pp. 293-311.

how much water do i consume

1. Environmental

How Much Water Do I CONSUME?

NON-CONSUMPTIVE USES:

  • by-product transport
  • heat transfer
  • plant sanitation
  • product / equipment washing
  • employee hygiene…

CONSUMPTIVE USES:

  • incorporation in product
  • evaporation…
how has america s water use changed over the last 50 years

1. Environmental

How has America’s water use changed over the last 50 years?

U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1268

~500% Increase

~50% Increase

industrial water use

1. Environmental

Industrial Water Use

Industrial freshwater withdrawals in billion gallons per day (Bgal/d)

a – includes public water supply

Adapted from Metcalf & Eddy, 2007

The reduction in manufacturing water use is attributed to shifting manufacturing practices, water conservation, limits on industrial wastewater discharges, and increased globalization and outsourcing of industrial activities (Huston et al., 2004)

industrial water use9

2. Economic

Industrial Water Use

Water Waste

Intended Water Use

Total Water Use

Efficient Water Use

Water Loss

Adapted from GCSWMP, 2008

how much water do i consume10

2. Economic

How Much Water Do I CONSUME?

You can’t MANAGE what you don’t MEASURE

water conservation
Water Conservation

Water conservation is defined as the beneficial reduction of water use, water waste and/or water loss...

- Georgia Comprehensive State-wide Water Management Plan. Section 2: Definitions (40) and Vickers, A. 2001. Handbook of water use and conservation: homes, landscapes, businesses, industries, farms. Waterplow Press. 446 pgs.

OR

…increasing production without increasing total water use!

water reuse terminology
Water Reuse Terminology

Closed-Loop

Regeneration

Redistribution

Recycling

Single-Pass

Reconditioned

Type A

Type B

Reclaimed

Reuse

Multi-Pass

Open-Loop

Advanced Treatment

Type C

industrial water reuse
Industrial Water Reuse

- is the capture and reutilization of water within industrial processes with the intent of reducing total water use or increasing production without increasing total water use.

  • The 3 general types of Industrial Water Reuse are:
  • Water Reuse with NO Treatment
  • Water Reuse with Limited or Targeted Treatment
  • Water Reuse with Advance or Full Treatment
industrial water reuse options
Industrial Water Reuse Options

Basic Water Use Schematic (without any reuse)

Operation 1

Freshwater

Wastewater

Operation 2

Operation 3

Adapted from Mann and Liu, 1999; Metcalf and Eddy, 2007

industrial water reuse options16
Industrial Water Reuse Options

Option 1: Water Reuse with NO treatment

Operation 1

Freshwater

Wastewater

Operation 2

Reuse

Operation 3

Adapted from Mann and Liu, 1999; Metcalf and Eddy, 2007

industrial water reuse options17
Industrial Water Reuse Options

Option 2: Water Reuse Limited or Targeted Treatment (treatment referred to as reclamation, regeneration)

Operation 1

Waste water

Freshwater

Operation 2

Treatment

Operation 3

a.k.a. - Open-Loop - Type A, B

Adapted from Mann and Liu, 1999; Metcalf and Eddy, 2007

industrial water reuse options18
Industrial Water Reuse Options
  • Single point to single point
    • chiller – recondition – chiller
    • water and BTU recovery
  • Multiple point to multiple point
    • chiller and final bird washer – recondition – scalder, evisceration, IOBW
    • greater water volume

USDA – FSIS Terminology see § 416.2(g)

Adapted from Presentation by Gary Engstrom, Environmental Management Corporation, 2007

industrial water reuse options19
Industrial Water Reuse Options

Option 3: with Full Treatment & Recycle

Operation 1

Freshwater

Operation 2

Treatment

a.k.a. - Advanced Treatment Reuse - Closed-Loop - Type C - ZLD – “Zero Liquid Discharge”

Operation 3

Adapted from Mann and Liu, 1999; Metcalf and Eddy, 2007

industrial water reuse concerns
Industrial Water Reuse Concerns
  • Pathogenic Organisms
  • Corrosion
  • Scaling
  • Biological Fouling
  • Accumulation of persistent wastewater constituents
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