After madrid 3 11 does europe do enough in the war on international terrorism
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AFTER MADRID 3/11 Does Europe Do Enough in the War on International Terrorism?. Marcel H. van Herpen Cicero Foundation Seminar JUSTICE AND HOME AFFAIRS The Role of Europol and Eurojust in Combating International Organised Crime PARIS, 13 May 2004. After Madrid 3/11. Introduction

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After madrid 3 11 does europe do enough in the war on international terrorism l.jpg

AFTER MADRID 3/11Does Europe Do Enough in the War on International Terrorism?

Marcel H. van Herpen

Cicero Foundation Seminar

JUSTICE AND HOME AFFAIRS

The Role of Europol and Eurojust in Combating International Organised Crime

PARIS, 13 May 2004


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After Madrid 3/11

  • Introduction

  • What is Terrorism?

  • Terrorism Curves

  • Old and New Terrorism

  • Roots of Terrorism

  • Different Reactions of US and EU

  • Anti-Terrorist Strategy


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After Madrid 3/11

  • Terrorism is a sub-state application of violence or threatened violence intended to sow panic in a society, to weaken or even overthrow the incumbents, and to bring about political change.

    (Walter Laqueur)


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Keywords:

  • Sub-state

  • Application of violence or threatened violence

  • To sow panic

  • To weaken political establishment

  • In order to bring about political change


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sub-state

  • Question of state terrorism

  • Question of state sponsors


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violence

What kind of violence and against whom?

  • DISCRIMINATE

    (political leaders/middle level targets)

    propaganda role

  • INDISCRIMINATE

    (population)

    maximum destruction


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sow panic

  • Terrorism uses fear (terror) as an instrument to impose itself

  • Terrorism can therefore exist even without concrete acts of violence


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To weaken establishment

  • Not by terrorism alone:

    1. cf. role of ‘political arms’ of terrorist

    organizations

    2. cf. social services, education, business


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What kind of political change?

  • Social revolution (Russian anarchists)

  • Anti-Democratic Movements

  • National Independence (Ireland)

  • Fundamentalist/Religious (Al Qaeda)


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Terrorism comes in waves

  • Terrorism is not new (cf. Assassins)

    THERE ARE WAVES IN HISTORY:

    LEFT WING WAVES

  • Late 1870’s (Murder of Tsar Alexander II)

  • Beginning 1900

    RIGHT WING WAVES

    After World War I (Freikorpsen Germany)

    After World War II (OAS France)


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Terrorism comes in waves

LEFT WING WAVE

1970’s

RAF (Germany) / Brigate Rosse (Italy)

ETHNIC WAVE

(IRA/ETA)

ISLAMIST WAVE

Muslim Brotherhood (Egypt)

FIS (Algeria)

Al Qaeda


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Old and New Terrorism

  • Old terrorism:

    • idealist

    • propaganda function

    • targets political leaders (discriminate)

    • national scope


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Old and New Terrorism

  • New Terrorism:

  • Fundamentalist/religious

  • Suicidal

  • Irrational

  • Indiscriminate

  • International

  • Cannot be deterred


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Roots of Terrorism

  • Response to Injustice?

  • Reaction to Repression?

  • High Arab Birthrates?

  • US Aggression?

  • Israel?

  • Clash of Civilizations?

  • Psychological Factors?


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Different Reactions US and Europe

  • US is at war, Europe is not

  • New vulnerability US versus old vulnerability Europe

  • Europe is from Venus, America from Mars? (Robert Kagan)

    Europe: international law / multilateral

    US: national law / unilateral


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Anti-Terrorist Strategy

  • 1. eliminate bases and training camps

  • 2. eliminate leadership

  • 3. attack financial infrastructure:

    Bank accounts

    Investments

    Portfolios

  • 4. eliminate sleeper cells

  • 5. eliminate pro Al Qaeda propaganda


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Anti-Terrorist Strategy

  • US needs help

  • Multilateral approach


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EU’s Anti-Terrorism Strategy

  • Council Regulation (EC) No. 2580/2001

    of 27 December 2001

    freezing of funds, financial assets, economic resources of terrorist groups

    Council Regulation (EC) No. 881/2002

    of 27 May 2002

    adds an annex list of persons, groups related to Al Qaeda


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EU’s Anti-Terrorism Strategy

  • Council Common Position 2001/930/CFSP

    of 27 December 2001

    freezing of funds, financial assets

    prevention terrorist acts

    denial safe haven

    bringing to justice

    prohibition free movement across borders


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EU’s Anti-Terrorism Strategy

  • Council Common Position 2001/1931/CFSP of 27 December 2001

    Adds also list (29 persons and 13 groups)

    Council Common Position 2002/402/CFSP

    of 27 May 2002

    prohibits supply, sale and transfer of arms to Al Qaeda, Taliban and related groups


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EU’s Anti-Terrorism Strategy

  • Council Framework Decision 2002/475/JHA of 13 June 2002

  • Initial definition of terrorist offences

  • Minimum penalties for terrorist offences


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EU’s Anti-Terrorism Strategy

  • Council Framework Decision 2002/584/JHA of 13 June 2002

    European Arrest Warrant

    1.1.2004 only 8 out of 15 meet deadline

    12.05.2004 EAW implemented by 17 of the 25

  • Council Framework Decision

    2002/465/JHA of 13 June 2002 on Joint Investigation Teams (JIT)


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EU’s Anti-Terrorism Strategy

  • March 2004

  • Appointment of Gijs de Vries as EU’s Coordinator


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