A V I A N F L U Ginny Codd Viruses: Infection and Ecology Zoonotic Disease Rapidly emerging viral infections Zoonosis: Transmission to human from non-human vertebrate Examples in USA: Monkey pox – chimpanzee (importation as pets)
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Viruses: Infection and Ecology
(recall Helen’s Four corners trailer tale)
"Habitat" of influenza A viruses. Ecological and phylogenetic studies suggest that wild waterfowl are the principal reservoirs for influenza A viruses, which occasionally are transmitted to other host animals such as horses, pigs, and chickens, leading to influenza outbreaks among these species. Some of the viruses may become established in these new hosts and cause epidemics and epizootics. Viruses are transmitted among these new host animals (e.g., between humans and pigs or between chickens and humans, as occurred in 1997 in Hong Kong).
mutation + deletion + reassortment + recombination.
Selling of live animals, vertebrate and invertebrate at market
Changes in practices
Hong Kong – aquatic birds eliminated/sold chilled
introduction of two ‘clean days’ per month
inactivated vaccine on poultry markets
Indochina peninsula – greater challenge in implementing change
600,000 doses to chicken in Ho Chi Minh city ( april 2005)
Current practice in Hong Kong and parts of Mainland China that serve the HK market.
Egg-based manufacture ( 300+ million eggs needed annually for influenza)
6-9 months to develop
Dedendant upon effective method for production and equitable distributionVaccination
Potential emerging practice:
Genetic engineering of strains containing the correct prescription of genes
If H5N1 were to mimic 98 pandemic predict 1.7 million deaths U.S.
180 – 360 million deaths globally
- meeting in Manila in May to address global concerns.
- focus on increased surveillance
- vaccine development
- education and change of farming and market practices