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Informal Seminar 08/03/2004. By Chris Sweet. 3D Visualisation of Simulation Data. Why Visualise?. More meaningful than lists of numbers. People have good visual intuition of dynamics. Visual check that simulation is correct.

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3d visualisation of simulation data l.jpg

Informal Seminar 08/03/2004.

By Chris Sweet.

3D Visualisation of Simulation Data.


Why visualise l.jpg
Why Visualise?

  • More meaningful than lists of numbers.

  • People have good visual intuition of dynamics.

  • Visual check that simulation is correct.

  • Easier to communicate interesting features of the simulation to others.


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Methods for 3D Output.

  • Projection of 3D image onto 2D plane.

  • 3D libraries such as OpenGL or DirectX.


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Projection of 3D onto 2D

  • This can be accomplished by using a matrix to project the 3D data onto a 2D plane, which can be varied to change the viewpoint.

  • For a viewing plane defined as follows we get a transformation matrix:


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Projection of 3D onto 2D

  • Example of 2D rendering of objects in 3D.


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Projection of 3D onto 2D

  • Example of 3D surface rendering.


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Advantages/Disadvantages of 3D Projection

  • +Easy to implement on any platform with raster graphics.

  • -Objects drawn as 2D.

  • -Hard to determine depth from viewer, (front objects do not obscure rear objects).

  • -Hard to implement perspective.

  • -Hard to apply textures.

  • -Slow as pixel driven.


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Advantages/Disadvantages of 3D Libraries

  • -Hard initial implementation.

  • +All methods of depth/ perspective/ texturing looked after.

  • +Hardware support for drawing so fast.

  • +Libraries exist for many different platforms.

  • Comparison: 3D projection of Solar System.

  • 3D library rendering of Solar System.


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Advantages/Disadvantages of 3D Libraries

  • Comparison: 3D projection of Solar System.


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Advantages/Disadvantages of 3D Libraries

  • 3D library rendering of Solar System.


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OpenGL

  • OpenGL is a cross-platform 3D graphics and modelling library with extremely good hardware support.

  • OpenGL is a procedural graphics API containing over 200 commands and functions.

  • OpenGL works in conjunction with other libraries, such as GLUT, for easier implementation.


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OpenGL basics, Vertex Transformation

  • Vertices are transformed according to the following pipeline:


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OpenGL basics, Initialisation.

  • Typical C++ initialisation commands:

  • Typical C++ re-draw commands:


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OpenGL View/Perspective

  • The viewing Frustum parameters are set using the command:

  • According to the diagram:


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OpenGL Drawing Objects

  • All OpenGL objects are constructed from polygons by defining the vertices:

  • or by using GLUT more complex shapes:


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OpenGL Lighting

  • Both ambient and point source lighting can be defined:


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OpenGL Textures

  • Textures can be mapped onto objects according to their vertex positions:


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OpenGL Translate/Rotate Object

  • OpenGL objects can and rotated:be translated:


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OpenGL Solar System Model

  • The Solar System model is a 10 body model designed to test the long term stability of different integrators and uses the previous OpenGL techniques to generate the graphics.


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References/Acknowledgments

  • The following book provides a good reference to OpenGL with examples in C/C++: OpenGL SuperBible by R.S.Wright, M.Sweet (No relation!).

  • The following online tutorial covers most aspects of OpenGL programming: http://nehe.gamedev.net/


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