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3D Visualisation of Simulation Data.PowerPoint Presentation

3D Visualisation of Simulation Data.

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Informal Seminar 08/03/2004. By Chris Sweet. 3D Visualisation of Simulation Data. Why Visualise?. More meaningful than lists of numbers. People have good visual intuition of dynamics. Visual check that simulation is correct.

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Why Visualise?

- More meaningful than lists of numbers.
- People have good visual intuition of dynamics.
- Visual check that simulation is correct.
- Easier to communicate interesting features of the simulation to others.

Methods for 3D Output.

- Projection of 3D image onto 2D plane.
- 3D libraries such as OpenGL or DirectX.

Projection of 3D onto 2D

- This can be accomplished by using a matrix to project the 3D data onto a 2D plane, which can be varied to change the viewpoint.
- For a viewing plane defined as follows we get a transformation matrix:

Projection of 3D onto 2D

- Example of 2D rendering of objects in 3D.

Projection of 3D onto 2D

- Example of 3D surface rendering.

Advantages/Disadvantages of 3D Projection

- +Easy to implement on any platform with raster graphics.
- -Objects drawn as 2D.
- -Hard to determine depth from viewer, (front objects do not obscure rear objects).
- -Hard to implement perspective.
- -Hard to apply textures.
- -Slow as pixel driven.

Advantages/Disadvantages of 3D Libraries

- -Hard initial implementation.
- +All methods of depth/ perspective/ texturing looked after.
- +Hardware support for drawing so fast.
- +Libraries exist for many different platforms.

- Comparison: 3D projection of Solar System.

- 3D library rendering of Solar System.

Advantages/Disadvantages of 3D Libraries

- Comparison: 3D projection of Solar System.

Advantages/Disadvantages of 3D Libraries

- 3D library rendering of Solar System.

OpenGL

- OpenGL is a cross-platform 3D graphics and modelling library with extremely good hardware support.
- OpenGL is a procedural graphics API containing over 200 commands and functions.
- OpenGL works in conjunction with other libraries, such as GLUT, for easier implementation.

OpenGL basics, Vertex Transformation

- Vertices are transformed according to the following pipeline:

OpenGL basics, Initialisation.

- Typical C++ initialisation commands:
- Typical C++ re-draw commands:

OpenGL View/Perspective

- The viewing Frustum parameters are set using the command:
- According to the diagram:

OpenGL Drawing Objects

- All OpenGL objects are constructed from polygons by defining the vertices:
- or by using GLUT more complex shapes:

OpenGL Lighting

- Both ambient and point source lighting can be defined:

OpenGL Textures

- Textures can be mapped onto objects according to their vertex positions:

OpenGL Translate/Rotate Object

- OpenGL objects can and rotated:be translated:

OpenGL Solar System Model

- The Solar System model is a 10 body model designed to test the long term stability of different integrators and uses the previous OpenGL techniques to generate the graphics.

References/Acknowledgments

- The following book provides a good reference to OpenGL with examples in C/C++: OpenGL SuperBible by R.S.Wright, M.Sweet (No relation!).
- The following online tutorial covers most aspects of OpenGL programming: http://nehe.gamedev.net/

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