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Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium describes populations that are not evolving. PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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KEY CONCEPT Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium provides a framework for understanding how populations evolve. Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium describes populations that are not evolving. Biologists use models to study populations. Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium is a type of model.

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Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium describes populations that are not evolving.

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Hardy weinberg equilibrium describes populations that are not evolving

KEY CONCEPT Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium provides a framework for understanding how populations evolve.


Hardy weinberg equilibrium describes populations that are not evolving

Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium describes populations that are not evolving.

  • Biologists use models to study populations.

  • Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium is a type of model.


Hardy weinberg equilibrium describes populations that are not evolving1

Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium describes populations that are not evolving.

  • Genotype frequencies stay the same if five conditions are met.

    • very large population: no genetic drift

    • no emigration or immigration: no gene flow

    • no mutations: no new alleles added to gene pool

    • random mating:no sexual selection

    • no natural selection:all traits aid equallyin survival


Hardy weinberg equilibrium describes populations that are not evolving2

Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium describes populations that are not evolving.

  • Real populations rarely meet all five conditions.

    • Real population data iscompared to a model.

    • Models are used tostudying how populationsevolve.


The hardy weinberg equation is used to predict genotype frequencies in a population

"The Hardy-Weinberg equation is based on Mendelian genetics. It is derived from a simple Punnett square in which p is the frequency of the dominant allele and q is the frequency of the recessive allele."

The Hardy-Weinberg equation is used to predict genotype frequencies in a population.

  • Predicted genotype frequencies are compared with actual frequencies.

    • used for traits in simple dominant-recessive systems

  • must know frequency of recessive homozygotes

  • p2 + 2pq + q2 = 1


There are five factors that can lead to evolution

There are five factors that can lead to evolution.


Hardy weinberg equilibrium describes populations that are not evolving

  • Genetic drift changes allele frequencies due to chance alone.


Hardy weinberg equilibrium describes populations that are not evolving

  • Gene flow moves alleles from one population to another.


Hardy weinberg equilibrium describes populations that are not evolving

  • Mutations produce the genetic variation needed for evolution.


Hardy weinberg equilibrium describes populations that are not evolving

  • Sexual selection selects for traits that improve mating success.


Hardy weinberg equilibrium describes populations that are not evolving

  • Natural selection selects for traits advantageous for survival.


Hardy weinberg equilibrium describes populations that are not evolving

  • expected in all populations most of the time

  • respond to changing environments

  • In nature, populations evolve.


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