Reconstruction 1865 1877
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Reconstruction 1865 - 1877. The Legacy of the Civil War. “The Civil War made America acknowledge the importance of equality in diversity” Abolished slavery by making it illegal 13 th , 14 th , 15th Amendments Strengthened national power Impoverished the South by freeing their source of labor

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Reconstruction 1865 - 1877

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Reconstruction 1865 1877

Reconstruction1865 - 1877


The legacy of the civil war

The Legacy of the Civil War

“The Civil War made America acknowledge the importance of equality in diversity”

  • Abolished slavery by making it illegal

  • 13th, 14th, 15th Amendments

  • Strengthened national power

  • Impoverished the South by freeing their source of labor

  • Political divisions become geographic


The legacy of the civil war1

The Legacy of the Civil War

  • Northerners: It was a fight to save the Union

  • Southerners: It was a fight to protect their rights from the Federal government

  • African-Americans: It was a fight for freedom


The legacy of the war

The Legacy of the War

  • One President dead

  • One “President” imprisoned

  • Over 600,000 dead w. more wounded

    • 13 million = Civil War fought in 2013

    • 1 in 4 males in the south dead/wounded

  • Four million slaves freed

  • Social system & economy of the south flipped

    How can you reconcile this?


The five questions of reconstruction

The Five Questions of Reconstruction

  • Who would direct the process of Reconstruction? The President, the south, Congress?

  • Should CSA leaders be tried for treason?

  • How would the south be rebuilt? Who would pay for it?

  • How would the south be reunited with the union?

  • What would be done with newly freed slaves? Were they to be made equal?


Remember

Remember…

  • The 13th Amendment had passed before Lincoln was assassinated

  • 40 Acres & a Mule was in effect by Special Field Orders No. 15

  • Lincoln (R) and Johnson (D) formed the Union Party

  • The Civil War had ended… or had it?


Lincoln s reconstruction plan

Lincoln’s Reconstruction Plan

“The 10% Plan”

  • Very lenient terms of pardon for Confederates

    • Had to swear allegiance to the Union. Once 10%of those on the 1860 voting list of a specific state had swore allegiance that state would be allowed back in.

    • Believed that individuals had left the Union, not states.

    • Only high CSA officials & those convicted of war crimes wouldn’t be pardoned.


Radical republicans

Radical Republicans

  • Minority within Congress that were outraged by Lincoln’s plan believing it to be too soft.

  • Early abolitionists who had desired equal rights for African-Americans including suffrage & full citizenship.

  • Proposed the Wade-Davis Billin response to the 10% Plan.

    • Gave Congress power over Reconstruction, made 50% swear allegiance.


Thaddeus stevens radical republican

Thaddeus Stevens – Radical Republican

Member of the House of

Representativesfrom Pennsylvania.

Witty & Sarcastic, noted

as one of the most prominent

members ever in Congress.


Johnson s reconstruction plan presidential reconstruction

Johnson’s Reconstruction Plan“Presidential Reconstruction”

Democrat leading a Republican office with a Republican Congress.

Problem?


Johnson s reconstruction plan presidential reconstruction1

Johnson’s Reconstruction Plan“Presidential Reconstruction”

  • Raised in the south, self-educated & poor, he promised to deliver “harsh punishment” to the South.

  • Would allow remaining southern states (AL,GA,FL,MS,SC,NC,TX) back if they:

    • Handled war debts

    • Swore allegiance

    • Passed 13th Amendment


Johnson s reconstruction plan

Johnson’s Reconstruction Plan

  • DID NOT:

    • Address land, voting, protection of freed slaves

    • Had pardoned 7,000 southerners by 1866.

    • Returned all property to former Confederates who pledged loyalty.

      • Overruled 40 Acres & a Mule.

    • All ex-CSA began to work toward their former political positions


Andrew johnson s own words

Andrew Johnson’s Own Words

“This is a country for white men & by God, as long as I am President, it shall be a government for white men.”

  • April, 1866 – Letter to Gov. of Missouri

    after vetoing the Civil Rights Bill


How the south responded

How The South Responded

  • Relieved.

    • Johnson supported abolition, but not equality.

  • States quickly abided by his plan.

    • States re-elected officials, most ex-CSA

      Johnson deemed Reconstruction nearly complete.


Congressional reconstruction begins dec 1865

Congressional Reconstruction Begins (Dec. 1865)

Freedmen’s Bureau

Civil Rights Act

“This bill neither confers nor abridges the rights of any one, but simply declares that in civil rights there shall be an equality among all classes of citizens, and that all alike shall be subject to the same punishments.”

  • Created by Pres. Lincoln

  • Assisted freedmen in gaining land, jobs, an education, helped to reunite families.

  • Helped in protecting freedmen from disgruntled southerners.

President Johnson VETOED BOTH.

Lost all Republican support by doing so.

Moderate + Radical Republicans team up.


Congressional reconstruction begins

Congressional Reconstruction Begins

  • Nation was “taped” back together:

    • The south still had problems left unanswered.

    • Moderate Repubs + Radicals = Bills being made.

    • Freedmen’s Bureaugets bolstered (Feb 1966)

    • Civil Rights Actgets formed to combat Black Codes


Black codes

Black Codes

  • Enacted by southern states after the Civil War to:

    • Limit civil liberties & rights of African-Americans

    • Feared equality of blacks

    • Feared that freedmen would not work unless forced


Congressional reconstruction

Congressional Reconstruction

  • With majority in Congress, Republicans were able to steer Reconstruction.

  • Came to the conclusion that:

    • By seceding, the south had given up both civil & political rights under the Constitution.

    • Therefore, previous Reconstruction plans were voided.

  • 14th Amendment formed, states wouldn’t be allowed re-entry until accepted by the state.

    • Tennessee immediately ratifies and rejoins the union.

      Race riots begin in the south.


Congressional election of 1866

Congressional Election of 1866

  • Republicans needed to maintain majority in Congress.

  • Pres. Johnson needed to convince the public to follow his quick unification.

  • Republicans cited “waving the bloody shirt” to fuel northern aggression to support them.

  • Republicans maintained a 2/3rds majority ensuring they could overturn all of Johnson’s vetoes.


Congressional reconstruction1

Congressional Reconstruction

  • Military Reconstruction Act of 1867

    • Divided the south into five territories

    • New govt officials needed to be elected

    • This act punished the south & ensured African-American rights.

  • What would happen once states were readmitted?

    • Fears over a regression in the south.


15 th amendment passed

15th Amendment Passed

  • Gave all men the right to vote regardless of race, color, etc…

    • Sorry, ladies…

  • Prohibited racial discrimination

    • (“Separate, but equal” still was OK somehow…)

  • To combat this, the south enacted poll taxes, literacy laws, intimidation tactics, lynching, etc…


The three amendments review

The Three Amendments Review

  • 13th Amendment (1865)

    • Abolished Slavery.

  • 14th Amendment (1868)

    • Provided citizenship rights for those born in America, protected them by law, and prohibited the deprivation of personal rights by law.

  • 15th Amendment (1970)

    • Provided suffrage regardless of color.


Impeachment of andrew johnson

Impeachment of Andrew Johnson

  • Congress passed the Tenure of Office Act (1867)

  • Johnson fired Sec. of War Edwin M. Stanton violating this act.


Reconstruction 1865 1877

Votes Needed to Impeach: 36

Votes Needed to Acquit: 19


Reconstruction 1865 1877

Republican Votes Available: 45

Verdict

Guilty: 35

Not Guilty: 19


Election of 1868

Election of 1868

Ulysses S. Grant (R)

Civil War Hero

Horatio Seymour (D)

Gov. of New York


Reconstruction 1865 1877

The south is noted as being largely Democratic.

Why do you believe most southern states voted in favor of Grant?


Review

REVIEW!

"If knowledge is power...."


Review1

REVIEW!

What were the five legacies, we discussed, of the Civil War?


Review2

REVIEW!

Why did Northerners fight in the Civil War?

Why did Southerners fight?

Why did African-Americans fight?


Review3

REVIEW!

What was 40 Acres & A Mule?

Who passed this?


Review4

REVIEW!

What was the “Union Party”? Who was it formed by and why?


Review5

REVIEW!

What was the name of Lincoln’s Reconstruction plan?

Describe it.


Review6

REVIEW!

What was the Wade-Davis Bill?

Who proposed it?


Review7

REVIEW!

What were Radical Republicans?

Why were they considered Radical?

Name the prominent Radical Republican that we discussed in class.


Review8

REVIEW!

Who was Andrew Johnson?

Describe his time in office.


Review9

REVIEW!

Describe Andrew Johnson’s Plan.

What was the name of it?

What did it do/not do?


Review10

REVIEW!

What were two reasons why Congressional Reconstruction began?


Review11

REVIEW!

Describe each:

  • Civil Rights Act

  • Freedmen’s Bureau

  • Black Codes


Review12

REVIEW!

Why was the Congressional Election of 1866 so vital?


Review13

REVIEW!

Describe:

13th Amendment

14th Amendment

15th Amendment


Review14

REVIEW!

Why was Andrew Johnson impeached?

What does impeachment mean?

What was the result of his impeachment?


Review15

REVIEW!

Who were the two candidates in the Election of 1868?

What was the result?


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