To What Extent Did the Financial Crisis Intensify the Pressure to Reform the Welfare State?. [Kees van Kersbergen, 2 March 2011]. Three phases: Supporting banks Keynesian macroeconomic policies Cutbacks of social expenditures
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[Kees van Kersbergen, 2 March 2011]
Three phases: Pressure to Reform the Welfare State?
Study of the United Kingdom, Germany and Sweden plus the Netherlands, Denmark and the United States
Sweden:€ 5 Billion ( 1.5 % of GDP)
Denmark:€ 18 Billion ( 8.0 % of GDP)
NL€ 20 Billion ( 7.0 % of GDP)
Germany€480 Billion (20 % of GDP)
US€519 Billion ( 5 % of GDP)
UK€960 Billion (60 % of GDP)