KYIV RUS CULTURE. Plan. 1. Origin of Kyiv Rus culture 2. Literature and education in Kyiv Rus 3. Architecture and art of Kyiv Rus. 1. Origin of Kyiv Rus culture.
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1. Origin of Kyiv Rus culture
2.Literature and education in Kyiv Rus
3. Architecture and art of Kyiv Rus
The first settlements that are found on the territory of Ukraine are referred to Zarubynetska culture. Houses were built of wood and were plastered with clay. Usually they were situated near rivers. The population bred cattle and cultivated soil. They knew how to smelt iron and they could produce some goods of it.
Next period of formation of Eastern Slavic tribes culture began with Chernyakhivska and Kyiv cultures (3rd-5th centuries A.D.). Up to thirty people united in a settlement that was fortified to protect themselves from enemies. Later near these settlements fortified settlements of tradesmen appeared. Now we know about two thousand of such settlements.
First Kyiv Rus prince that adopted Christianity was Ukraine are referred to Ascold (60’s of the 9th century). Later Christianity was introduced by the princess Olga, and finally the process of Christianity introduction was finished by Volodymyr the Great.
Byzantine played an important part in the life of Kyiv Rus. For instance coins that were minted during the reign of Volodymyr the Great tendencies of Byzantine coin minting are reflected: he was depicted with a diadem on his head and sceptre in his hand. Coins are the first place where family sign of Kyiv princes appears, the so-called tryzub, which nowadays performs function of National Ukrainian Emblem. Byzantine influence is seen in the organization of armed forces, fleet, in fortification.
Settlements and towns began to grow but the old form of taxing, danyna, as an initial form of feudal rent remains the basic form of state income.
As well as in Europe temples and monasteries were the sources of education, science and art. They also performed functions of libraries. St. Sophia’s Cathedral in Kyiv was one of the most important of them. It was also the residence of metropolitan. The first Rus’s chronology was composed here in 1037-1039, and metropolitan Illarion wrote and proclaimed famous “Word of Law and Grace”, that is a masterpiece of national consciousness and elocution.
Christian Mural, Ukraine sources of education, science and art. They also performed functions of libraries. This Christian mural decorates the walls of Kyiv’s Cathedral of Saint Sophia. The oldest cathedral in Ukraine, it was constructed in the 11th century, then mostly rebuilt in the late 17th and early 18th centuries. It is noted for the many frescoes and mosaics gracing its walls.
Starting with the end of the 11 sources of education, science and art. They also performed functions of libraries. th century Pechersk monastery became one more source of cultural life of Kyiv Rus.
Slavic alphabet was created by Kyryl and Methodius in 9 sources of education, science and art. They also performed functions of libraries. th century The so-called “Sophia’s” alphabet is of special interest. It was found on one of the walls of Sophia’s Cathedral. It included twenty-seven letters: twenty-three Greek ones and four Slavic (Б, Ж, Ш, Щ). Graphically those letters were analogies to Cyrillic ones but they are not Cyrillic alphabet that consists of forty-three letters.
“Vles’s Book” sources of education, science and art. They also performed functions of libraries. is believed to be the first source of Slavic literacy. It is written in the alphabet close to Cyrillic one and depicts the history of Kyiv Rus from 650 B.C. till the end of the 13th century A.D.
The first Ukrainian doctor is considered to be sources of education, science and art. They also performed functions of libraries. Agapit who cured by means of different herbs and did surgery.
Almost all the literary monuments of that time have one and the same plot that is history and one and the same theme that is sense of human life. They include works of metropolitan Illarion, Klym Smolyatych, Kyryl Turovskyi and of other authors.
A poem (12th“Word of Igor's Regiment” century) is one of the greatest cultural and literary treasures of Ukraine-Rus.
3. Architecture and art of Kyiv Rus the same plot that is history and one and the same theme that is sense of human life. They include works of
The architecture of Kyiv Rus developed under the influence of Chersonese, Byzantine, Asia Minor, Balkan Peninsula. The so-called Byzantine style of architecture was developed in Kyiv Rus. the oldest buildings of that time are still preserved in Kyiv and Chernihiv. Remnants of castle building are still seen in Galychyna.The most popular material for buildings of those times was timber.
There are no ancient monuments of Rus’s architecture remained till our times, because almost all of them were made of wood. Only a few buildings remained: St. Sophia’s Cathedral, Golden Gate, some buildings in Chernihiv, Pereyaslav, Galych, Kholm and other towns. Sophia’s cathedral in Kyiv concluded different styles and art elements of Byzantine, Armenia, Asia Minor, Romanesque style. Inside of the Cathedral was decorated with lots of mosaics, frescos, arches, columns, and ornaments.
The most famous icon workshop during the 11-12 remained till our times, because almost all of them were made of wood. Only a few buildings remained: th centuries was Pechersk one, where the famous artist Alimpij worked. He and his followers created Kyiv icon-painting school.