name describe each of the 7 crystal structures
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Name & describe each of the 7 crystal structures - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Name & describe each of the 7 crystal structures. Solutions. Solution. Homogeneous mixture made up of at least one solute dissolved in the solvent. Solute. Substance being dissolved Portion in lesser molar amount. Solvent. Substance doing the dissolving Portion in greatest molar amount.

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Presentation Transcript
slide3

Solution

  • Homogeneous mixture made up of at least one solute dissolved in the solvent
slide4

Solute

  • Substance being dissolved
  • Portion in lesser molar amount
slide5

Solvent

  • Substance doing the dissolving
  • Portion in greatest molar amount
slide8

Colloid

  • Slightly larger particles
  • Light passes & particles stay suspended
slide9

Suspension

  • Even larger particles
  • Particles block or reflect light
slide10

Tyndall Effect

  • Because light reflects off suspended particles, the light ray can be seen from the side
slide11

Size Comparison

  • Solution < Colloid
  • Colloid < Suspension
slide12

Soluble

  • When one substance (solute) dissolves in another (solvent)
slide13

Solubility

  • The amount of one substance (solute) dissolved in another (solvent)
slide14

ConcentratedSolution

  • A solution with a relatively large amount of solute dissolved
slide15

Concentration

  • The amount of solute dissolved into solution
slide16

Dilute Solution

  • A solution with a relatively small amount of solute dissolved
slide17

Saturated Solution

  • A solution with the maximum amount of solute dissolved in the solution
slide18

Unsaturated Solution

  • A solution with less than the maximum amount of solute dissolved in solution
slide19

Supersaturated Solution

  • A solution with greater than the maximum amount of solute dissolved in solution
slide20

Solution Measures

  • Concentration
  • Molarity
  • Molality
  • Mole Fraction
slide21

Percent Solution

  • Mass of one portion per the total mass, all times 100 %
  • %soln = ma/mtotal x 100 %
slide22

Molarity

  • Moles of solute per liter of solution
  • M = molessolute/Lsoln
slide23

Molality

  • Moles of solute per kilogram of solvent
  • mo = molessolute/kgsolvent
slide24

Mole Fraction

  • Moles of one portion per total number of moles in the solution
  • X = molesa/molessoln
drill calculate
Drill: Calculate:
  • mass of NaCl required to make 1.5 L of 2.0 M NaCl:
slide29

Calculate the molality & mole fraction of a solution containing 46 g of C2H5OH dissolved in 1782 mL of water

slide30

Colligative Properties

  • Properties dependent only on the concentration of particles in solution
slide31

Examples

  • Vapor pressure
  • Boiling & Freezing points
  • Osmotic pressure
drill
Drill:
  • Calculate the VP of a solution containing 36 % glucose (C6H12O6) in water at 29oC:
  • (VPwater = 30.0 mm Hg)
slide34

Vapor Pressure

  • VPsolution = (VPsolvent)(Xsolvent)
  • X = mole fraction
  • VP = vapor pressure
slide35

Boiling & Freezing

DT = imoK

DT = change in BP or FP

i = ionic activity

K = BP or FP constant

slide36

Osmotic Pressure

p = iMRT

p = osmotic pressure

i = ionic activity

M = Molarity

slide39
Calculate the osmotic pressure of a solution containing 12 g of NaOH dissolved in 250 mL solution at 27oC
slide41

Calculate the osmotic pressure of a solution containing 12 g of C4H8O4 dissolved in 750 mL solution at 27oC

slide42

Clausius-Claperon Eq

(T2)(T1) P2

(T2 – T1) P1

Hv= R ln

slide45

Calculate the osmotic pressure of a solution containing 29.9 g of CoBr3 dissolved in 7500 mL solution at 27oC

slide47

180 g C3H8O was dissolved in 180 mL H2O at 27oC making a 1.5 g/mL solution. Calculate X, mo, M, p, VP, BP, & FP.

slide49

300 g C3H6NF was dissolved in 500 g C6H12O at 27oC making a 0.800 g/mL solution. Calculate X, mo, M, p, VP, BP, & FP.

slide52

Calculate the molecular mass of a covalent compound dissolved in an aqueous solution to make it 25 % by mass when it boils at 102.048oC

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