Name describe each of the 7 crystal structures
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Name & describe each of the 7 crystal structures. Solutions. Solution. Homogeneous mixture made up of at least one solute dissolved in the solvent. Solute. Substance being dissolved Portion in lesser molar amount. Solvent. Substance doing the dissolving Portion in greatest molar amount.

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Solution

  • Homogeneous mixture made up of at least one solute dissolved in the solvent


Solute

  • Substance being dissolved

  • Portion in lesser molar amount


Solvent

  • Substance doing the dissolving

  • Portion in greatest molar amount


Colloid

  • Slightly larger particles

  • Light passes & particles stay suspended


Suspension

  • Even larger particles

  • Particles block or reflect light


Tyndall Effect

  • Because light reflects off suspended particles, the light ray can be seen from the side


Size Comparison

  • Solution < Colloid

  • Colloid < Suspension


Soluble

  • When one substance (solute) dissolves in another (solvent)


Solubility

  • The amount of one substance (solute) dissolved in another (solvent)


ConcentratedSolution

  • A solution with a relatively large amount of solute dissolved


Concentration

  • The amount of solute dissolved into solution


Dilute Solution

  • A solution with a relatively small amount of solute dissolved


Saturated Solution

  • A solution with the maximum amount of solute dissolved in the solution


Unsaturated Solution

  • A solution with less than the maximum amount of solute dissolved in solution


Supersaturated Solution

  • A solution with greater than the maximum amount of solute dissolved in solution


Solution Measures

  • Concentration

  • Molarity

  • Molality

  • Mole Fraction


Percent Solution

  • Mass of one portion per the total mass, all times 100 %

  • %soln = ma/mtotal x 100 %


Molarity

  • Moles of solute per liter of solution

  • M = molessolute/Lsoln


Molality

  • Moles of solute per kilogram of solvent

  • mo = molessolute/kgsolvent


Mole Fraction

  • Moles of one portion per total number of moles in the solution

  • X = molesa/molessoln



Drill calculate
Drill: Calculate: NaOH dissolved in water

  • mass of NaCl required to make 1.5 L of 2.0 M NaCl:


Calculate the molality of 69 g of c 2 h 5 oh dissolved in 500 0 ml of water
Calculate the molality of 69 g of C NaOH dissolved in water2H5OH dissolved in 500.0 mL of water


Calculate the mole fraction of each portion when 92 g of C NaOH dissolved in water2H5OH dissolved in 144 mL of water


Calculate the molality & mole fraction of a solution containing 46 g of C2H5OH dissolved in 1782 mL of water


Colligative Properties containing 46 g of C

  • Properties dependent only on the concentration of particles in solution


Examples containing 46 g of C

  • Vapor pressure

  • Boiling & Freezing points

  • Osmotic pressure


Drill
Drill: containing 46 g of C

  • Calculate the VP of a solution containing 36 % glucose (C6H12O6) in water at 29oC:

  • (VPwater = 30.0 mm Hg)


Vapor Pressure containing 46 g of C

  • VPsolution = (VPsolvent)(Xsolvent)

  • X = mole fraction

  • VP = vapor pressure


Boiling & Freezing containing 46 g of C

DT = imoK

DT = change in BP or FP

i = ionic activity

K = BP or FP constant


Osmotic Pressure containing 46 g of C

p = iMRT

p = osmotic pressure

i = ionic activity

M = Molarity



Calculate bp fp of 60 0 g of naoh in 250 ml water k bp 0 512 o c mo k fp 1 86 o c mo
Calculate BP & FP of 60.0 g of NaOH in 250 mL water CKBP = 0.512oC/moKFP = -1.86oC/mo


Calculate the osmotic pressure of a solution containing 12 g of NaOH dissolved in 250 mL solution at 27oC



Calculate the osmotic pressure of a solution containing 12 g of C4H8O4 dissolved in 750 mL solution at 27oC


Clausius-Claperon Eq of C

(T2)(T1) P2

(T2 – T1) P1

Hv= R ln


VP of Cbenzene Temp (oC) 24.5 27 73.5 127Calculate Hv for benzene:


Drill: Calculate BP & FP of 88 g of CO of C2 in 750 mL waterKBP = 0.512oC/moKFP = -1.86oC/mo


Calculate the osmotic pressure of a solution containing 29.9 g of CoBr3 dissolved in 7500 mL solution at 27oC



180 g C C3H8O was dissolved in 180 mL H2O at 27oC making a 1.5 g/mL solution. Calculate X, mo, M, p, VP, BP, & FP.



300 g C make 250 mL of 0.40 M Pb(NO3H6NF was dissolved in 500 g C6H12O at 27oC making a 0.800 g/mL solution. Calculate X, mo, M, p, VP, BP, & FP.



A 1.2 g/cm Pb(NO3 aqueous solution is 20.0 % by mass NaOH at 27oC.

Calculate: X, mo, M, p, & MP


Calculate the molecular mass of a covalent compound dissolved in an aqueous solution to make it 25 % by mass when it boils at 102.048oC


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