Forage macro minerals ca p k mg na cl s and dairy cow requirements
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Forage Macro-Minerals (Ca, P, K, Mg, Na, Cl, S) and Dairy Cow Requirements. Jim Linn, PhD Professor Emeritus – University of Minnesota Milk Specialties Global Waconia Farm Supply. Importance of Minerals. Animal Health Production/Reproduction Ration cost. Close-Up Dry Cow

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Forage macro minerals ca p k mg na cl s and dairy cow requirements

Forage Macro-Minerals (Ca, P, K, Mg, Na, Cl, S)and Dairy Cow Requirements

Jim Linn, PhD

Professor Emeritus – University of Minnesota

Milk Specialties Global

Waconia Farm Supply


Importance of minerals
Importance of Minerals

Animal

Health

Production/Reproduction

Ration cost

Close-Up Dry Cow

18 – 22% of total

$/cow/day

0.75 - 1.00

Lactating Cow

8 to 10% of total

$/cow/day

0.75 - 1.00


Nutrient composition dm of dairy rations
Nutrient Composition (% DM) of Dairy Rations


Forage minerals
Forage Minerals

Forage minerals

Contribute to animal requirement

Variability – species, maturity, soils, fertilization

Animal – Plant Imbalances


Forage mineral analysis
Forage Mineral Analysis

NIRS or Wet Chemistry?

  • NIRS doesn’t measure minerals only C,N,O bonds

  • Are the minerals reported on NIRS forage tests accurate?

  • At the end of the day, when nutritionists have several rations to formulate, can NIRS predicted forage minerals be used?


Nir prediction of minerals
NIR Prediction of Minerals

SEC – Std Error Calibration – lower better (±1 SEC – 67% of values)

RSQ – R2 1 = perfect prediction

SECV – Prediction validation – lower the better

NIR mineral validity depends on good reference wet chemistry methods and equation(s) development

Source – Dairyland Labs, Arcadia WI


Nirs analysis forage minerals
NIRS Analysis – Forage Minerals

Macro Minerals –

  • Lactation rations

    • Acceptable estimator

      • Ca, P, K, Mg and S

    • Rationale

      • Most rations over formulated and supplemented

      • Small range in P, Mg and S within species

      • Salt meets Na and Cl req’t

  • Dry cow

    • NIRS not recommended for mineral analysis

    • Forages are large proportion of diet

    • Accuracy needed for DCAD and requirements

      Trace minerals – NIRS not recommended


Forage macro minerals sgs forage summary 2012
Forage Macro MineralsSGS Forage Summary - 2012



Feed dm lb 85 lb milk
Feed DM (lb) – 85 lb Milk

52 lb DM

17% CP

1.18 Mcal ME/lb

32% NDF

25.5% Starch

61 % Forage DM

Lb

Feed

DM


Macro minerals for lactating cows requirements vs ration formulation
Macro Minerals for Lactating CowsRequirements vs. Ration Formulation

1 Weiss – Hoards Dairyman Feb 10, 2013

a Sodium Buffers

b Higher forage concentrations - legume


Calcium contribution from feeds lactating cow diet 0 90 ca
Calcium Contribution From FeedsLactating cow diet – 0.90% Ca

lb or %


Phosphorus contribution from feeds lactating cow diet 0 40 p
Phosphorus Contribution From FeedsLactating cow diet – 0.40% P

% P contribution

lb Feed DM

lb or%


Magnesium contribution from feeds lactating cow diet 0 35 mg
Magnesium Contribution From FeedsLactating cow diet – 0.35% Mg

% Mg contribution

lb Feed DM

lb or%


Potassium
Potassium

Mineral required in the highest amounts in lactating dairy cows

K balance studies indicate 1.6% K needed in early lactation for positive balance

Heat stress increases requirement

Forage K >85% available


Potassium contribution from feeds lactating cow diet 1 5 k
Potassium Contribution From FeedsLactating cow diet – 1.5% K

% K contribution

lb or%


Sulfur contribution from feeds lactating cow diet 0 28 s
Sulfur Contribution From FeedsLactating cow diet – 0.28% S

% S contribution

lb or%


Sodium and chloride contribution from feeds lactating cow diet 0 5 salt
Sodium and ChlorideContribution From FeedsLactating cow diet – 0.5% Salt

Ration – 0.5% Na and 0.62% Cl

lb or%



Close up dry cow diet 28 lb dm day
Close-up Dry Cow Diet28 lb DM/day

lb/cow/day

  • Grass hay 8.3

  • Corn silage 13.7

  • Corn 0.8

  • Protein 3.8

  • Macro minerals 1.04

  • TM/Additives 0.64


Close up dry cow diet macro mineral from forage
Close-up Dry Cow Diet% Macro Mineral from Forage

%

77% Forage diet – 13.7 lb Corn sil + 8.3 lb Grass Hay DM


Minerals from forages in dry c ow d iets
Minerals from Forages in Dry Cow Diets

  • Forages can supply 20 to 70% a mineral

  • Accuracy on mineral concentration in forages more important – less error tolerance

    • Cation – Anion balance

    • Metabolic problems – greater risk with mineral imbalance

  • Wet chemistry analysis recommended for minerals in dry cow forages


DCAD, mEq/100g =

[(%Na  43.5 + %K  25.6)  (%Cl  28.2 + %S  62.5)]


DCAD, mEq/100g =

[(%Na  43.5 + %K  25.6)  (%Cl  28.2 + %S  62.5)]

LACTATING COWS

CLOSE-UP DRY COWS


Macro minerals in forage summary
Macro Minerals in Forage Summary

  • Forages are an important source of most macro minerals in lactating and dry cow rations.

  • Ration formulation needs to consider

    • Requirements

    • Sources

    • Amounts fed – excess as well as deficiencies

    • Interactions amongst minerals fed in excess


Macro minerals in forage summary1
Macro Minerals in Forage Summary

  • NIRS acceptable estimator of Ca, P, K, Mg and S in lactating rations.

    • Formulations usually exceed minimum requirements

  • Forages are a greater proportion of dry cow ration and mineral formulation requires accuracy – Wet Chemistry mineral analysis recommended.

  • Precision feeding lactation and/or dry cow diets require wet chemistry analysis of minerals.



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