Mikhail gorbachev
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MIKHAIL GORBACHEV. LAST LEADER OF THE SOVIET UNION. TIMELINE. http://www.history-timelines.org.uk/events-timelines/03-cold-war-timeline.htm. REFORMER. 1985 TO 1991 (First Soviet leader NOT born under the Tsar.). GLASNOST. Means “openness” Allowed: Freedom of speech Freedom of press

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MIKHAIL GORBACHEV

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Mikhail gorbachev

MIKHAIL GORBACHEV

LAST LEADER

OF THE

SOVIET UNION


Timeline

TIMELINE

  • http://www.history-timelines.org.uk/events-timelines/03-cold-war-timeline.htm


Reformer

REFORMER

  • 1985 TO 1991

  • (First Soviet leader NOT born under the Tsar.)


Glasnost

GLASNOST

  • Means “openness”

  • Allowed:

    • Freedom of speech

    • Freedom of press

  • Freed dissidents

    • Allowed them to leave USSR

  • Permitted Jews to emigrate (leave USSR)


Demokratizatsiya

DEMOKRATIZATSIYA

  • Democratization: adding democracy!

  • Free & unfettered elections!

  • Gorbachev elected first (& only!)executive president of USSR


Perestroika

PERESTROIKA

  • Economic reform

  • Allowed some private enterprise

    • Small businesses

    • Competition

    • Credit

    • Profit (incentive pay)


Foreign policy

FOREIGN POLICY

  • Abandoned Brezhnev Doctrine

    • Gave E. European Satellites freedom

  • Warsaw Pact dissolved in 1991

  • Signed INF Treaty w/U.S.

    • Elimination of intermediate range nuclear missiles


Satellites break free

SATELLITES BREAK FREE!

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ahMQ5IGsH4o&feature=related&safety_mode=true&persist_safety_mode=1&safe=active


Nobel peace prize

NOBEL PEACE PRIZE

  • 1990

  • For reducing the possibility of nuclear war

    • Signing INF Treaty

    • Withdrew military from Europe


Unpopular in ussr

UNPOPULAR IN USSR

  • Reforms created instability

  • Ethnic tensions erupted

    • Result of Glasnost

    • (90 ethnic groups)

    • (80 languages)

    • Pressures for independence from republics


Gorbachev tries to reform

GORBACHEV TRIES TO REFORM

  • Gorbachev cuts 500,000 from Soviet military in 1988, ending arms race.

  • He tries to put more money into perestroika – modernizing factories, wage increases to boost worker productivity


More economic problems

MORE ECONOMIC PROBLEMS!

  • Siberian oil sales had kept economy going in ’70s and early ’80s – prices had falled by half by 1985.

  • Regional governments begin to withhold tax revenues.

  • Repeal of tax on alcohol – loss of more revenue.

  • Has to print more rubles – inflation!


Gorbachev says

GORBACHEV SAYS:

  • “The old system fell apart before the new system began to work.”

  • Communism was doomed.

  • But not everyone thought so. Some Communist “hardliners” are still in Parliament (Duma) and in military.


Mikhail gorbachev

COUP!

  • August, 1991

  • Gorbachev kidnapped

    • By Communist hardliners

    • Directed by members of Politburo


Coup collapses

COUP COLLAPSES

  • Boris Yeltsin, Mayor of Moscow, leads protest

    • Elected president of Russian FSSR (one republic of USSR)

    • Convinced armed forces NOT to back coup

    • Sends rescue forces to Crimea to rescue Gorbachev

  • Gorbachev returns to power

    • Arrested Gang of Eight

    • But greatly weakened politically


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