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The criminal import/export between East and West Europe . Dina Siegel CIROC 20 December 2006. 1. Was the crime situation in 8 new Central and Eastern European member-states taken seriously before 2004 and what were the consequences for the Western Europe?

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The criminal import export between east and west europe l.jpg

The criminal import/export between East and West Europe

Dina Siegel

CIROC

20 December 2006


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  • 1. Was the crime situation in 8 new Central and Eastern European member-states taken seriously before 2004 and what were the consequences for the Western Europe?

  • 2. Are we really importing (organized) crime from the East?

  • 3. Are we also exporting (organized) crime to the East?

  • 4. Are we going to import/export even more (organized) crime in 2007?

  • 5. What can be done?


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Davis, I., Hirst, C., Mariani, B., (2001), ‘Organised crime, corruption and illicit arms trafficking in an enlarged EU, Challenges and Perspectives’, Saferworld Arms and Security Programme

Center for the study of democracy (2000, 2004), Sofia

Europol (2003, 2004)

Korf, D.J., Bovenkerk, F. (2005), ‘Van de straat: politie, multiculturaliteit en criminaliteitspreventie, Politieacademie onderzoeksreeks, Apeldoorn

Slovenian police reports (2003-2004)

Polish police reports (2004)

Korps Landelijke Politiediensten (2004), ‘Misdaad zonder grenzen, Criminaliteitsbeeld Oost-Europa 2002 – 2003’

Other Dutch Police reports (1992-2004)

United Nations Development Programs (2002, 2003)

Reports of MVD, Russia (2002, 2003)

TraCC, Moldova and Georgia (2004)

Nathanson Center reports (2002-2004)

Transparency International reports (2003 – 2006)

Sources:


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1. Was the crime situation in 8 countries that joined the EU in 2004 taken seriously in time and what were the consequences for the Western Europe?

  • Knowledge:

  • a. registered facts (law enforcement data)

  • b. criminological analysis (literature, reports, presentations)

  • c. local perceptions


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Situation in Eastern and Central Europe (1)

  • 1. Political-economic instability

  • 2. Organized Crime activities:

    • trafficking in human beings

    • smuggling of drugs, art and cigarettes

    • the theft and smuggling of cars

    • fraud and other financial crimes

    • trade in illegal arms


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Situation in Eastern and Central Europe (2)

  • - involvement of ‘foreign’ criminal organizations

  • - corruption

  • - violent entrepreneurs

  • - voluntary prostitution

    Answer: situation was underestimated


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Question: "In your opinion, which Russian government and public organizations and services are most corrupt?”% of the group

The police, customs and law enforcement agencies 52

The traffic police45

Hospitals and clinics33

Courts and prosecutors’offices26

Educational organizations 18

Local governments18

Federal government bodies12

Etc.

(November 25-26, 2006)


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2. Are we really importing (organized) crime from the East?

  • Two main approaches:

  • 1. OC never needed permission to join the EU, it was already settled in the West, including the Netherlands

  • 2. The easing of border restrictions between different parts of Europe attracts the OC and facilitates its activities


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First approach:

In the 1990s evidence of:

  • Russian mafia

  • Yigoslavian criminal groups

  • Albanian trafficking networks

    Conclusion: there is no reason to expect a sudden increase in serious crime now that a number of new member states have joined the EU


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Second approach:

New forms of East-European crime in the Netherlands:

  • Polish mobile banditism

  • Modern slavery

  • Yugoslavian underground shops

  • Illegal brothels

  • Illegal trade in human body parts

  • Counterfeiting


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The answer to the second question is:

We do not import organized crime, but we do face new forms of criminality as a result of the EU enlargement


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3. Are we also exporting (organized) crime to the East?

Three main illegal markets in the Eastern Europe:

  • - drugs market (‘made in Holland XTC’)

  • - children prostitution

  • - illegal dumping of chemicals


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The answer to the third question:

Yes, Western organized crime exports criminal activities to the new member-states and makes use of new markets and new opportunities


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4. Are we going to import/export even more

(organized) crime in 2007?


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5. What can be done?

  • 1. Police co-operation

  • 2. Borders control

  • 3. Priorities


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