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OCR Examinations A Level Physical Education A 7875 Module 2565 : Option B2 part 2 Psychology of Sport Performance. 28 - THE MANAGEMENT OF STRESS 29 - RELAXATION TECHNIQUES 30 - STRESS CONTROL TECHNIQUES - COGNITIVE / BIOFEEDBACK 31 - MENTAL PREPARATION FOR PERFORMANCE

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OCR Examinations A Level Physical Education A 7875 Module 2565 : Option B2 part 2

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Ocr examinations a level physical education a 7875 module 2565 option b2 part 2

OCR Examinations

A Level Physical Education

A 7875

Module 2565 : Option B2

part 2

Psychology of Sport Performance


Index

28 - THE MANAGEMENT OF STRESS

29 - RELAXATION TECHNIQUES

30 - STRESS CONTROL TECHNIQUES - COGNITIVE / BIOFEEDBACK

31 - MENTAL PREPARATION FOR PERFORMANCE

MENTAL REHEARSAL / GOAL SETTING

32 - SOCIAL FACILITATION - DIFFERENT TYPES OF AUDIENCE

33 - SOCIAL FACILITATION

CO-ACTORS / FACTORS AFFECTING PERFORMANCE

34 - FACILITATION AND INHIBITION

35 - SOCIAL FACILITATION AND EVALUATION APPREHENSION

36 - THE DOMINANT RESPONSE

37 - THE DISTRACTION EFFECT

38 - HOMEFIELD ADVANTAGE - HOME / AWAY EFFECT

39 - AGGRESSION IN SPORT - ASSERTIVE PLAY

HOSTILE / INSTRUMENTAL AGGRESSION

40 - CAUSES OF AGGRESSION - PHYSIOLOGICAL AROUSAL

41 - THEORIES OF AGGRESSION

42 - SPECTATOR AGGRESSION

43 - RESPONSIBILITY FOR AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOUR

44 - PREVENTION OF AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOUR

GOVERNING BODY

45 - PREVENTION OF AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOUR

COACHES / PLAYERS

46 - ATTRIBUTION - WEINER’S MODEL

47 - WEINER’S MODEL

LOCUS OF CAUSALITY / STABILITY

48 - ATTRIBUTION

SUCCESS / FAILURE / FUTURE EXPECTATIONS

49 - THE ATTRIBUTION PROCESS

50 - LEARNED HELPLESSNESS (LH)

ATTRIBUTION RETRAINING

Index

3 - SELF-CONFIDENCE AND SELF-EFFICACY

4 - SELF-CONFIDENCE - CONFIDENCE

5 - SELF-CONFIDENCE - LACK OF CONFIDENCE /OVERCONFIDENCE

6 - THE ROLE OF THE COACH

7 - SELF-EFFICACY - BANDURA’S MODEL

PERFORMANCE ACCOMPLISHMENTS / VICARIOUS EXPERIENCES

8 - SELF-EFFICACY - BANDURA’S MODEL

VERBAL PERSUASION / EMOTIONAL AROUSAL

9 - SELF-CONFIDENCE - WEINBERG’S MODEL

10 - VEALEY’s MODEL OF SPORT CONFIDENCE

11 - CONCENTRATION

CUE UTILISATION / USE OF COGNITIVE TECHNIQUES

12 - CONCENTRATION AND ATTENTIONAL STYLES

NIDEFFER’S ATTENTIONAL STYLES

13 - AROUSAL - RETICULAR ACTIVATING SYSTEM

14 - AROUSAL AND DRIVE THEORY

15 - INVERTED U THEORY - OPTIMUM AROUSAL

16 - AROUSAL CURVES - EXAMPLES

17 - CATASTROPHE THEORY

18 - TASK DIFFERENCES - OPTIMUM AROUSAL

19 - TASK DIFFERENCES

COMPLEX / SKILFULLY DIFFICULT - SIMPLE / GROSS TASKS

20 - ANXIETY - A STATE / TRAIT

21 - STRESS AND STRESSORS

22 - STRESSORS

23 - GENERAL ADAPTATION SYNDROME

24 - PSYCHOLOGICAL STRESS

EXTERNAL / INTERNAL / COMPETITIVE ORIENTATION

25 - EUSTRESS

26 - EFFECT OF STRESS ON PERFORMANCE - INHIBITION PERFORMANCE OF SKILLS / CONCENTRATION / STRESS

27 - SYMPTOMS OF STRESS - PHYSIOLOGICAL / PSYCHOLOGICAL

BEHAVIOURAL SYMPTOMS

INDEX


Self confidence and self efficacy

SELF-CONFIDENCE

SELF-EFFICACY

Self Confidence

SELF-CONFIDENCE AND SELF-EFFICACY


Self confidence

CONFIDENCE

Self Confidence

SELF-CONFIDENCE

  • arouses positive emotions

  • allows the athlete to

    • remain calm under pressure

    • be assertive when required

  • facilitates concentration

  • enables focus on the important aspects of a task

  • enables the setting of challenging but realistic goals

  • increases effort

  • affects game strategies

    • a confident player plays to win even if it means taking risks

  • affects psychological momentum

    • a confident athlete take each point or play at a time

    • and never gives up

    • even when defeat is imminent


Self confidence1

OVERCONFIDENCE OR FALSE CONFIDENCE

is dangerous because it can lead to

inadequate preparation

low motivation

low arousal

which are difficult to correct when competition is under way

Self Confidence

SELF-CONFIDENCE

LACK OF CONFIDENCE

  • causes stress under pressure

  • causes concentration on outside stressors

    • mistakes

    • spectators

  • causes the setting of goals which are either too easy or too hard

  • causes the athlete to try to avoid mistakes

  • non-confident athletes find it difficult to reverse negative psychological momentum

    • once things start to go wrong

    • it is difficult to think positively


The role of the coach

ROLE OF THE COACH

develop self-confidence

and self-efficacy

through successful achievement

ensure early and continued success

by careful selection of

goals

tasks

levels of competition

focusing on successful personal performance not on winning

Self Confidence

THE ROLE OF THE COACH


Self efficacy bandura s model

VICARIOUS EXPERIENCES

consist of what has been observed in others

performing a similar skill

example : observing another player in your team dribbling a soccer ball

if the model is of similar age / ability

and is successful

then this may lead to greater self-efficacy

Self Confidence

SELF-EFFICACY - BANDURA’S MODEL

PERFORMANCE ACCOMPLISHMENTS

  • consist of past experiences

  • example : previously performed skill at dribbling a soccer ball

  • if this is successful

  • then this leads to greater self-efficacy

  • at this particular task

  • in the future


Self efficacy bandura s model1

VERBAL PERSUASION

encouragement can lead to greater self-efficacy

if the person giving encouragement is of high status

compared with the performer

Self Confidence

SELF-EFFICACY - BANDURA’S MODEL

EMOTIONAL AROUSAL

  • if arousal is too high

    • state anxiety - A-state

  • this could lead to low self-efficacy

  • mental rehearsal / physical relaxation could

    • lead to greater confidence

    • and a calmer approach


Self confidence2

WEINBERG’S MODEL of developing self-confidence

Self Confidence

SELF-CONFIDENCE


Vealey s model of sport confidence

Self Confidence

VEALEY’s MODEL OF SPORT CONFIDENCE

VEALEY’S MODEL

trait sport confidence

  • the usual level of self-confidence

  • example : a discus thrower is generally confident about making a throw

competitive orientation

  • the perceived opportunity to achieve a sport performance

  • example : the discus thrower is motivated by a national championships to throw well

state sport confidence

  • the level of self confidence related to a specific situation

  • example : the discus thrower feels confident because the wind is in the right direction


Concentration

CONCENTRATION

a state of mind in which attention is directed towards a specific aim or activity

attentional focus

control of attention towards a task

CUE UTILISATION

cues can be used by the sportaperson

to direct attention

to trigger appropriate arousal responses

to enable attentional focus at a relevant moment

sometimes, narrowing of attentional focus by an aroused player

will cause lack of awareness of broader play issues

USE OF COGNITIVE TECHNIQUES TO ASSIST CONCENTRATION

imagery

mental rehearsal

relaxation

can be used to direct the sportsperson’s mind towards a specific task

these techniques can be thought to manage the stress of the situation

to manage anxiety in a productive way

Concentration

CONCENTRATION


Concentration and attentional styles

NIDEFFER’S ATTENTIONAL STYLES

BROAD

a player concentrates on the whole game

all players’ positions and movements

open skills

NARROW

the player concentrates on one aspect of the game

the goalkeeper

closed skills

INTERNAL

the player decides to concentrate on his own technique

EXTERNAL

the player focuses on the position of his opposite number

Concentration

CONCENTRATION AND ATTENTIONAL STYLES


Arousal

RETICULAR ACTIVATING SYSTEM

RAS is a system within the brain which causes arousal

extroverts have lower levels of intrinsic arousal than introverts

hence extroverts seek situations of high arousal

introverts seek low arousal situations

Emotional Control

AROUSAL

a state of mental and physical preparedness for action

this is the level of inner drives

which forces the sportsperson to strive to achieve

it needs to be under control

and at the right level depending on the task

a faster heart rate

faster breathing rate

sweating

ability to focus (concentrate)

response to danger

AROUSAL


Arousal and drive theory

WITH INCREASED AROUSAL

the dominant habit / most usual behaviour will be reproduced

a poorly-learned skill will give a performance full of mistakes

a well-learned skill will give a skilled performance

Emotional Control

AROUSAL AND DRIVE THEORY

DRIVE THEORY

  • the higher the arousal level

  • the higher the achievement / performance level

  • the more likely that a well-learned skill (a dominant response) will be produced


Inverted u theory

INVERTED U THEORY

THE POSITION OF OPTIMUM AROUSAL DEPENDS ON

type of activity / task complexity

gross skills (weight lifting) require high arousal

fine skills (snooker) require low arousal

skill level of the performer

the more skilful the performer

the higher the optimum arousal could be

personality of the performer

the more extrovert the performer

the higher the arousal likely for optimum performance

whereas introverts would optimise performance at lower arousal levels

Emotional Control

INVERTED U THEORY

  • there is an optimum arousal level

  • if aroused more than this

  • performance will decline


Arousal curves

BEST PERFORMANCE

Sam’s performance has the highest level

Emotional Control

AROUSAL CURVES

PSYCHING UP

  • Jon’s best performance takes place at the highest arousal level

  • he needs to psych himself up the most to achieve optimum performance

CONTROLLED AROUSAL

  • Ted’s best performance takes place between a narrow range of arousal levels

  • therefore arousal needs to be carefully controlled


Catastrophe theory

CATASTROPHE THEORY

here performance increases as arousal increases

but if arousal gets too high

a complete loss of performance occurs

Emotional Control

CATASTROPHE THEORY

  • example : the golfer who tries too hard and completely misses the fairway from his drive at the 18th hole when in a winning position

  • example : the gymnast who completely messes up her previously well-executed routine in a national final

  • anxiety affects arousal


Task differences

OPTIMUM AROUSAL

can be identified

can be controlled by successful performers

depends on

circumstances

personalities

whether tasks are

simple or complex

fine or gross

strength or endurance

information processing

Emotional Control

TASK DIFFERENCES


Task differences1

COMPLEX / SKILFULLY DIFFICULT TASKS

fine, delicate and highly controlled

or information processing tasks

high arousal interferes with task

sometimes very low arousal is required (calmness)

close control required

narrow band of arousal best

Emotional Control

TASK DIFFERENCES

SIMPLE / GROSS TASKS

  • easy / large basic movements / strength or endurance tasks

  • bigger margin for error

  • broader optimal arousal zone

  • tolerate bigger arousal levels before performance falls


Anxiety

ANXIETY

an emotional state

similar to fear

associated with

physiological (somatic) arousal

psychological (cognitive) arousal

feelings of nervousness

feelings of apprehension

Emotional Control

STATE ANXIETY - A STATE

an emotional response to a particular situation

characterised by feelings of nervousness and apprehension

often temporary

ANXIETY

TRAIT ANXIETY - A TRAIT

  • an inbuilt (trait) part of the personality

  • a tendency to be fearful of unfamiliar situations

  • a tendency to perceive competitive situations as threatening

  • a tendency to respond to competitive situations with apprehension and tension


Stress and stressors

STRESS

a response of the body to any demands made on it

symptoms of stress

physiological

psychological

behavioural

Emotional Control

STRESS AND STRESSORS


Stressors

STRESSORS

social

disapproval of parents / peers

rejection by peers / parents

isolation from normal social interactions

chemical / biochemical

harm by ingestion of substances

bacterial

illness caused by micro-organisms

physical

injury / pain / exhaustion

climatic

extremes of weather

hot weather for endurance activities

rain and cold on bare skin

psychological

mismatch between perception of demands of task

and ability to cope

Emotional Control

STRESSORS


General adaptation syndrome

homeostasis = the process of establishing body equilibrium in its functions

well-being

Emotional Control

GENERAL ADAPTATION SYNDROME


Psychological stress

EXTERNAL - THE SITUATION

perception of the demands of the situation

example : I’ve got to run a PB to win

INTERNAL

perception of the performer’s ability to cope

example : I got a terribly slow start last time

COMPETITIVE ORIENTATION

perception of the importance of the situation

example : there’s a gold medal hanging on this

Emotional Control

PSYCHOLOGICAL STRESS


Eustress

EUSTRESS

a type of stress with a positive effect

the performer actively seeks the thrill of the danger

and enjoys the excitement and feeling of satisfaction when it is over

examples :

bungy jumping

free rock climbing

extreme sport skiing

ultra high diving

‘I like an unforgiving situation where if you make a mistake you suffer for it’

Emotional Control

EUSTRESS


Effect of stress on performance

INHIBITION

inhibition of performance

PERFORMANCE OF SKILLS

stress may act directly on the information processing of skill

motor elements of skill are performed less well

muscles tense

muscular control is reduced

CONCENTRATION

concentration is difficult

span of attention is narrowed

STRESS

awareness of being under stress itself acts as a stressor

Emotional Control

EFFECT OF STRESS ON PERFORMANCE


Symptoms of stress

PHYSIOLOGICAL SYMPTOMS

increased heart rate

increased blood pressure

increased sweating

increased breathing rate

decreased flow of blood to the skin

increased oxygen uptake

dry mouth

PSYCHLOGICAL SYMPTOMS

worry

feeling overwhelmed

inability to make decisions

inability to concentrate

inability to direct attention appropriately

narrowing of attention

feeling out of control

BEHAVIOURAL SYMPTOMS

rapid talking

nail biting

pacing

scowling

yawning

trembling

raised voice pitch

frequent urination

Emotional Control

SYMPTOMS OF STRESS


The management of stress

Emotional Control

THE MANAGEMENT OF STRESS


Relaxation techniques

IMAGERY RELAXATION

think of a place with associations of warmth and relaxation

imagine the activity or technique

practise in non-stressful situations

use prior to competition

PROGRESSIVE RELAXATION TRAINING (PRT)

learn to tense then deeply relax separate muscle groups

SELF-DIRECTED RELAXATION TRAINING

focus on each of the major muscle groups in turn

allow breathing to become slow and easy

visualise the tension flowing out of a muscle group

until completely relaxed

eventually combine muscle groups

and achieve total relaxation quickly

Emotional Control

RELAXATION TECHNIQUES


Stress control techniques

BIOFEEDBACK

monitor skin temperature

cold if stressed

warm if unstressed

galvanic skin response

electrical conductivity of skin increases when moist

tense muscle cause sweating

electromygraphy

electrodes taped to specific muscles

can detect electrical activity

hence tension in muscle

Emotional Control

COGNITIVE STRESS MANAGEMENT

control of emotions and thought processes

linked to attributions

eliminate negative feelings

develop self-confidence

STRESS CONTROL TECHNIQUES


Mental preparation for performance

MENTAL REHEARSAL

consciously imagine a performance

rerun a past experience

preview hope-for success

helps concentration

helps focus on strengths and weaknesses

positive effect on skill learning

but not as good as actual practice

GOAL SETTING

success is more likely because :

learning is focused

uncertainty is reduced

confidence is increased

practice is planned and structured

evaluation and feedback are specific

Emotional Control

MENTAL PREPARATION FOR PERFORMANCE


Social facilitation

SOCIAL FACILITATION

the effect that the presence of spectators

has on the way sportspeople play or perform

can be positive

facilitation

example : crowd encourages a team playing well

can be negative

inhibition

example : crowd jeers at a team not playing well

DIFFERENT TYPES OF AUDIENCE

passive others (social facilitation)

audience

coactors

interactive others

competitors

spectators

Social Facilitation

SOCIAL FACILITATION


Social facilitation1

CO-ACTORS

a passive form of audience

involved in the same activity

at the same time as the performer

but not competing directly

examples :

officials / umpires / referees

members of own team

ball boys / helpers

FACTORS AFFECTING PERFORMANCE

size of audience

proximity of audience

intentions of the audience

skill level of the task

personality of the performer

type of task

Social Facilitation

SOCIAL FACILITATION


Facilitation and inhibition

FACILITATION

high arousal leads to improved performance by

highly skilled performer

gross skills

simple skills

extrovert performer

INHIBITION

high arousal leads to reduced performance by

novices

fine skills

complex skills

introvert performer

Social Facilitation

FACILITATION AND INHIBITION


Social facilitation and evaluation apprehension

SOCIAL FACILITATION (ZAJONC)

the mere presence of others creates arousal

which then affects performance

depending on which part of the learning curve

performance is only improved if the dominant response is the one desired

EVALUATION APPREHENSION (COTTRELL)

audience is perceived as evaluating performance causing anxiety

thus evaluation apprehension causes arousal

coping strategies include

stress management

mental rehearsal

selective attention (away from evaluators)

lowering the importance of the situation

training with an audience present

Social Facilitation

SOCIAL FACILITATION AND EVALUATION APPREHENSION


The dominant response

AROUSAL CAUSED BY AUDIENCE EVALUATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF A CORRECT DOMINANT RESPONSE

audience evaluation causes arousal

if a skill is poorly learnt (early in the learning curve)

then arousal causes incorrect response

because incorrect response is dominant

Social Facilitation

THE DOMINANT RESPONSE

  • if a skill is well-learnt (later in the learning curve)

  • then arousal causes correct response

  • because the correct response is dominant

  • look at inverted U theory for connection between arousal and performance


The distraction effect

DISTRACTION

is an aspect of concentration (or lack of concentration)

attentional focus is very important for the effective sportsperson

if this is disrupted then he / she is distracted from his / her task

audience and evaluation apprehension can act as a distraction

the sportsperson needs therefore to practise in distracting circumstances

and practise switching attentional focus when faced with potentially distracting circumstances

Social Facilitation

THE DISTRACTION EFFECT


Homefield advantage

HOME / AWAY EFFECT ON PERFORMANCE

more teams win at home than away

a crowd may be judged as supportive or hostile

high levels of anxiety caused by hostility may reduce performance

the environment is familiar to home teams

therefore home players are more comfortable

this limits anxiety and enables a worry free performance

Social Facilitation

HOMEFIELD ADVANTAGE


Aggression in sport

ASSERTIVE PLAY

no intent to harm

legitimate force within the rules

unusual effort

unusual energy

sometimes called channelled aggression

HOSTILE AGGRESSION

intent to harm

goal is to harm

arousal and anger involved

INSTRUMENTAL AGGRESSION

intent to harm

goal to win

used as a tactic ‘dirty play’

no anger

illegal in all sports except boxing

Aggression

AGGRESSION IN SPORT


Causes of aggression

PHYSIOLOGICAL AROUSAL

anger towards another person

causing an increase in arousal

highly motivated

UNDERDEVELOPED MORAL REASONING

players with low levels of moral reasoning

more likely to be aggressive

BRACKETED MORALITY

double standard

condoning aggressive behaviour may retard players’ moral development

‘aggression is wrong in life, but OK in sport’

SPECIFIC CAUSES

high environmental temperature

home or away

embarrassment

losing

pain

unfair officiating

playing below capability

large score difference

low league standing

later stage of play (near the end of a game)

reputation of opposition (get your retaliation in first)

Aggression

CAUSES OF AGGRESSION


Theories of aggression

INSTINCT THEORY

aggression is innate and instinctive

caused by survival of the species

sport releases built up aggression, catharsis

Lorentz

FRUSTRATION AGGRESSION THEORY

aggression caused by frustration

the person being blocked in the achievement of a goal

this causes a drive towards the source of frustration

Dollard

SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY

aggression is learned

by observation of other’s behaviour

then imitation of this aggressive behaviour

this is then reinforced by social acceptance of the behaviour

Bandura

AGGRESSIVE CUE HYPOTHESIS

frustration causes anger and arousal

this creates a readiness for aggression

which can be initiated by an incident during the performance (the cue)

this is a learned response

example : a player sees a colleaguefouled then decides to join in

Berkowitz

Aggression

THEORIES OF AGGRESSION


Spectator aggression

Aggression

SUPPORTERS can help prevent aggression by

avoid showing aggression

avoid advocating aggression

SPECTATOR AGGRESSION

SPECTATOR AGGRESSION caused by

  • player aggression

  • poor or biased officials

  • alcohol

  • racial or national abuse

  • adult male crowd


Responsibility for aggressive behaviour

Aggression

RESPONSIBILITY FOR AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOUR


Prevention of aggressive behaviour

GOVERNING BODY

code of conduct

coaches

players

officials

use of strong officials

use of rules of games

punishment (remove league points)

sin bins

reward non-aggressive acts (FIFA fair play award)

use of language

reduce media sensationalism

coach education programme

Aggression

PREVENTION OF AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOUR


Prevention of aggressive behaviour1

Aggression

COACHES / PLAYERS

promote ethical behaviour

promote sporting behaviour

control aggressive behaviour

stress management strategies / relaxation techniques

self control strategies

reduce levels of arousal

maintain a healthy will to win without winning being everything

set performance goals rather than outcome goals

remove players from field if at risk of aggression

enable channelling of aggression towards a performance goal

use peer pressure ‘avoid letting the side down’

PREVENTION OF AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOUR


Attribution

ATTRIBUTION

the process of giving reasons for behaviour

and ascribing causes for events

example : the player played badly today because the weather was poor

WEINER’S MODEL

has four attributions :

ability

effort

task difficulty

luck

arranged in two dimensions :

LOCUS OF CAUSALITY

STABILITY

with a possible third dimension :

CONTROLLABILITY

Attribution Theory

ATTRIBUTION


Weiner s model

LOCUS OF CAUSALITY

is the performance outcome caused by

INTERNALfactors

under the control of the performer

ability / effort

EXTERNALfactors

beyond the control of the performer

task difficulty / luck

ABILITY

the extent of the performer’s capacity to cope with a sporting task

EFFORT

the amount of mental and physical effort theperformer gives to the task

STABILITY

is the performance outcome caused by

STABLEfactors

fixed factors which don’t change with time

ability / task difficulty

UNSTABLEfactors

factors which can vary with time

effort / luck

TASK DIFFICULTY

the extent of the problems posed by the task including the strength of the opposition

LUCK

factors attributable to chance

such as the weather or the state of the pitch

Attribution Theory

WEINER’S MODEL


Attribution1

SUCCESS

explained by internal attributions

FAILURE

explained by external attributions

FUTURE EXPECTATIONS

related to stability

if we attribute success to stable factors

or if we attribute failure to stable factors

then we expect the same next time

HIGH ACHIEVERS

attribute success to internal factors

and attribute failure to external factors

LOW ACHIEVERS

attribute success to external factors

and attribute failure to internal factors

FEELINGS ABOUT SPORT

attributions affect

pride

satisfaction

expectancy

learned helplessness

avoidance

Attribution Theory

ATTRIBUTION


The attribution process

Attribution Theory

THE ATTRIBUTION PROCESS


Learned helplessness lh

LEARNED HELPLESSNESS

a belief acquired over time

that one has no control over events

that failure is inevitable

a feeling of hopelessness

GLOBAL LH

a person attributes failure to internal / stable factors

applied to all sports

‘I am useless at all sports’

SPECIFIC LH

a person attributes difficulties to internal / stable factors

applied to one specific sport

‘I am good at soccer but hopeless at racquet games’

ATTRIBUTION RETRAINING

low achievers need to learn to attribute success

and failure to the same reasons

as high achievers

success to stable factors

failure to unstable factors

Attribution Theory

LEARNED HELPLESSNESS (LH)


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