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Healthcare Personnel Immunization Recommendations: 2011 Update. Kathleen Harriman, PhD, MPH, RN Vaccine Preventable Disease Epidemiology Section California Department of Public Health Immunization Branch [email protected] Background.

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Healthcare Personnel

Immunization Recommendations:

2011 Update

Kathleen Harriman, PhD, MPH, RNVaccine Preventable Disease Epidemiology SectionCalifornia Department of Public HealthImmunization Branch

[email protected]

  • Ensuring that healthcare personnel (HCP) are immune to vaccine preventable diseases (VPDs) is an essential part of occupational health programs
    • Prevent transmission of VPDs and eliminate unnecessary work restrictions
    • Safeguards health of workers and protects patients from exposure to infected workers
    • Substantially reduces both number of susceptible HCP and risks for transmission of VPDs to other workers and patients
  • Prevention of illness through comprehensive employee immunization programs is far more cost-effective than case management and outbreak control
  • Mandatory immunization programs, which include both newly hired and currently employed persons, are more effective than voluntary programs in ensuring that susceptible persons are vaccinated
vaccination programs
Vaccination Programs
  • Maintenance of complete immunization records
  • Policies for catch-up vaccination
  • Work restrictions for exposed susceptible employees
  • Control of outbreaks
  • Additional vaccines may be indicated for laboratories employees or for employees who travel to other parts of the world to perform research or healthcare work (e.g., as medical volunteers in a humanitarian effort)
where do u s immunization recommendations come from
Where do U.S. immunization recommendations come from?

Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP)

  • 15 experts selected by the U.S. Secretary of HHS to provide advice and guidance to CDC on the control of vaccine preventable diseases; the only entity in the federal government that makes such recommendations
  • Develops written recommendations for routine administration of vaccines to children and adults in the civilian population; recommendations include age for vaccine administration, number of doses/dosing intervals, and precautions and contraindications
  • Recommends immunizations for healthcare personnel
acip recommendations for hcp
ACIP Recommendations for HCP
  • Employer decisions about which ACIP recommended vaccines to include in HCP immunization programs have typically been made by considering the:
    • Likelihood of HCP exposure to vaccine preventable diseases and the potential consequences of not vaccinating HCP
    • Nature of employment (type of contact with patients/residents and their environment)
    • Characteristics of the patient/resident population within the organization

Vaccines that might be indicated for adults, based

on medical and other indications --- United States, 2011

2011 ACIP adult immunization recommendations

cdc definition of hcp
CDC Definition of HCP
  • All paid and unpaid persons working in healthcare settings who have the potential for exposure to patients with influenza, infectious materials, including body substances, contaminated medical supplies and equipment, or contaminated environmental surfaces.
  • HCP might include (but are not limited to):
    • physicians, nurses, nursing assistants, therapists, technicians, emergency medical service personnel, dental personnel, pharmacists, laboratory personnel, autopsy personnel, students and trainees, contractual staff not employed by the health-care facility, and persons (e.g., clerical, dietary, housekeeping, maintenance, and volunteers) not directly involved in patient care but potentially exposed to infectious agents that can be transmitted to and from HCP
required immunizations for california hcp
Required Immunizations for California HCP
  • There are no federal or California state requirements mandating immunization or immunity to VPDs
  • Some healthcare facilities require immunizations/immunity to specific VPDs as a condition of employment
vaccine that is required to be offered per the cal osha bloodborne pathogen standard
Vaccine that is required to be offered* per the Cal/OSHA Bloodborne Pathogen standard
  • Hepatitis B vaccine – three doses

* To all employees who are exposed to blood or other

potentially infectious materials as part of their job duties.

If vaccine is declined, a declination form must be signed.

which employees are covered by the cal osha atd standard
Which employees are covered by the Cal/OSHA ATD standard?
  • Employees whose exposure from work activity or working conditions is reasonably anticipated to create an elevated risk of contracting any disease caused by aerosol-transmissible pathogens if protective measures are not in place
  • “Elevated” risk means higher than what is considered ordinary for employees having direct contact with the general public outside of the facilities, service categories, and operations listed in the standard

occupational exposure
Occupational Exposure
  • In each included work setting covered by the standard, it is presumed that some employees have occupational exposure; for a particular employee it depends on tasks, activities, and the environment
  • Includes having contact with, or being within the exposure range of cases or suspected cases of aerosol-transmissible diseases
  • Employers must identify employees with occupational exposure in order to take protective measures
vaccines that are required to be offered per the atd standard





Tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis (Tdap)

Varicella-zoster (VZV)


One dose annually

Two doses

Two doses

One dose

One dose, booster as recommended

Two doses

Vaccines that are required to be offered* per the ATD standard

* To all susceptible employees who might be exposed.

If vaccine is declined, a declination form must be signed.

diseases covered by the atd standard
Diseases covered by the ATD standard
  • Applies to diseases classified by CDC’s Healthcare Infection Control Advisory Committee (HICPAC) as either droplet or airborne*
    • Novel or unknown pathogens considered airborne
    • Only “reportable diseases” under Title 17† require exposure investigation

* 2007 Guideline for Isolation Precautions:

Preventing Transmission of Infectious Agents in Healthcare Settings


annual influenza vaccination
Annual Influenza Vaccination
  • Offer to all eligible HCP at no cost
  • Educate re: vaccination benefits and consequences of influenza illness for themselves and their patients
  • Obtain signed declination forms
  • Monitor coverage including ward, unit, and specialty-specific coverage rates
  • Use HCP coverage as a measure of patient safety quality program
  • Mandate vaccination??
influenza the numbers
Influenza – the Numbers
  • 15% of persons ill during average influenza season
  • 23% of HCP had documented serologic evidence of influenza infection after mild influenza season; 59% could not recall having influenza
  • >75%of HCP with influenza-like illness (ILI) continued towork in hospital
  • 32% decrease (to 0) of nosocomial influenza in a hospital with vaccination increase from 4 to >67%
barriers to influenza vaccination
Barriers to Influenza Vaccination
  • Fear of vaccine side effects (particularly influenza-like illness symptoms)
  • Perceived ineffectiveness of the vaccine
  • Medical contraindication (not always valid)
  • Perceived low likelihood of contracting influenza
  • Fear of needles
  • Insufficient time or inconvenience
  • Similar barriers may apply to Tdap

CDC influenza vaccine information for HCP:

strategies used by nursing homes to encourage influenza vaccination among their employees
Strategies Used by Nursing Homes to Encourage Influenza Vaccination Among Their Employees

§ Strategies associated with LTCF staff influenza vaccination rates >60%

SOURCE: National Nursing Home Survey; 2004

Available at:

mandatory influenza vaccination
Mandatory Influenza Vaccination
  • Seattle: Virginia Mason – first U.S. hospital to mandate influenza vaccination or mask wearing during influenza season
  • St. Louis: Barnes-Jewish – first U.S. hospital to mandate influenza vaccination and terminate noncompliant employees
  • New York: 2009 emergency regulation (later withdrawn) required seasonal and pandemic H1N1 vaccination of personnel in hospitals, home care, hospice, and diagnostic/treatment facilities
    • 2009-08-26_health_care_worker_mandatory_influenza_immunization.htm
  • California: hospitals must offer vaccine at no cost to employees
    • Vaccination or written declination required per SB 739 and the ATD standard
    • Public reporting of vaccination rates via CDC’s National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) required
    • Some hospitals began mandating vaccination or mask wearing in 2009
national organization influenza vaccination recommendations
National Organization Influenza Vaccination Recommendations
  • APIC 2011: Acute care hospitals, long-term care and other facilities that employ HCP should require annual influenza immunization as a condition of employment unless there are compelling medical contraindications. Unvaccinated HCP may be required to wear a mask when contact with patients or susceptible employees is likely.
  • SHEA 2010: Endorses a policy in which annual influenza vaccination is a condition of both initial and continued HCP employment and/or professional privileges.
  • IDSA 2009: Mandatory vaccination or mask wearing.
  • ACIP 2007: Level of vaccination coverage among HCP to be one measure of a patient safety quality program. Implement policies to encourage HCP vaccination (e.g., obtaining signed statements from HCP who decline influenza vaccination).
  • Most unions oppose mandatory vaccination
joint commission
Joint Commission

Standard IC.02.04.01: The organization offers vaccination against influenza to licensed independent practitioners and staff.

  • The hospital establishes an annual influenza vaccination program that is offered to licensed independent practitioners and staff.
  • The hospital educates licensed independent practitioners and staff about, at a minimum, the influenza vaccine; non-vaccine control and prevention measures; and the diagnosis, transmission, and impact of influenza.
  • The hospital provides influenza vaccination at sites accessible to licensed independent practitioners and staff.
  • The hospital annually evaluates vaccination rates and the reasons given for declining the influenza vaccination.
  • The hospital takes steps to increase influenza vaccination rates.
medical conditions that confer a higher risk of severe influenza
Medical Conditions that Confer a Higher Risk of Severe Influenza
  • Chronic pulmonary disorders (including asthma)
  • Cardiovascular disorders (except hypertension)
  • Renal disorders
  • Hepatic disorders
  • Cognitive disorders*
  • Neurologic/neuromuscular disorders*
  • Hematologic disorders
  • Metabolic disorders (including diabetes mellitus)
  • Immunosuppression (including immunosuppression caused by medications or by HIV)

*that can compromise respiratory function, the handling of respiratory secretions, or increase the risk for aspiration

can hcp taking antivirals receive influenza vaccine
Can HCP taking antivirals receive influenza vaccine?
  • Antivirals do not interfere with the development of immunity from inactivated (injectable) influenza vaccine
  • Antivirals may interfere with the development of immunity fromintranasal live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV)
  • LAIV should not be administered until 48 hours after the cessation of antiviral therapy and antivirals should not be administered until two weeks after administration of LAIV unless medically indicated
  • If antivirals and LAIV are given concomitantly, HCP should be revaccinated when appropriate
hepatitis b vaccination hcp
Hepatitis B Vaccination: HCP
  • Any person who performs tasks involving contact with blood, blood-contaminated body fluids, other body fluids, or sharps should be vaccinated against hepatitis B
    • Highly immunogenic – seroconversion ~95%
  • Incidence among HCP since mid-1990s is lower than general population due to vaccination and standard precautions

Updated U.S. P.H.S. Guidelines for the Management of Occupational Exposures to HBV, HCV, and

HIV and Recommendations for Post-exposure Prophylaxis. MMWR 50 (RR11) - 6/29/01

estimated number of acute hbv infections due to occupational exposures u s 1983 2002
Estimated Number of Acute HBV Infections Due to Occupational Exposures, U.S., 1983-2002

OSHA Requirements

Vaccine Recommended for HCP

hepatitis b31
Hepatitis B
  • HCP with potential for exposure to blood or body fluids should be immunized for hepatitis B with the 3-dose vaccine series if they have not already received it
  • Newly immunized HCP should be tested 1-2 months after the last dose of vaccine series to determine if they are immune
    • anti-HBs >10 mIU/mL = immune
hepatitis b testing after vaccination
Hepatitis B Testing After Vaccination
  • Anti-HBs <10 mIU/mL  revaccinate
    • 3 doses followed by testing after third dose more practical than testing after 1 or more doses of vaccine
  • Anti-HBs <10 mIU/mL after revaccination  test for HBsAg
    • HBsAg positive  provide appropriate management
    • HBsAg negative  susceptible to HBV infection
      • counsel re: precautions to prevent HBV infection
      • HBIG postexposure prophylaxis for any known or likely parenteral exposure to HBsAg-positive blood
  • Periodic titers or booster doses of vaccine not recommended - protection is long lasting
previously vaccinated hcp without evidence of immunity
Previously Vaccinated HCP Without Evidence of Immunity
  • Over time, an increasing number of persons entering the healthcare workforce will have received routine vaccination as infants, children, or adolescents; most will have no documentation of seroprotection
  • Persons immunized for hepatitis B in the past are less likely to have measurable anti-HBs than those vaccinated more recently
  • An ACIP workgroup is currently discussing recommendations for HCP who were immunized as children
testing for hepatitis b infection
Testing for Hepatitis B Infection
  • Regardless of immunization history, it may be prudent to test HCP and trainees in certain high-risk groups for HBsAg and anti-HBc/anti-HBs to determine their infection status:
    • Those born in countries with high and intermediate endemicity for hepatitis B
    • Unvaccinated U.S.-born HCP whose parents were born in regions of high endemicity for hepatitis B
    • HIV-positive HCP
    • HCP who disclose having engaged in or currently engaging in high-risk sexual or substance abuse behaviors
    • HCP who require immunosuppressive therapy or who are on hemodialysis
hepatitis b infected hcp
Hepatitis B Infected HCP
  • Chronic hepatitis B infection is not grounds for exclusion from healthcare practice or training
  • See the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America’s “Guideline for Management of Healthcare Workers Who Are Infected with Hepatitis B Virus, Hepatitis C Virus, and/or Human Immunodeficiency Virus” at:

hbv postexposure prophylaxis
HBV Postexposure Prophylaxis

Updated U.S. Public Health Service Guidelines for the Management of Occupational Exposures to HBV, HCV, and HIV and Recommendations for Post-exposure Prophylaxis.

MMWR 50 (RR11) - 6/29/01

  • Elimination of endemic measles in North and South America was achieved in 2002 and is a public health success modelfor immunization programs in the developed world
  • Last nationwide outbreak in U.S. was 1988-1991 when there were 17,000 cases in California with 70 deaths
  • Introduction of 2nd dose of vaccinein 1989 and federal “Vaccines for Children” program in 1993
    • 2000: “Measles is no longer endemic in the U.S.”
  • As evidenced by recent outbreak activity in Europe, for controlto be sustained, two-dose vaccination strategy with very highcoverage is needed
  • Measles continues to be imported to the U.S. and California by travelers from parts of the world where measles is not controlled

2nd dose



transmission interrupted

Measles—United States, 1950-2005

Vaccine Licensed





measles transmission
Measles Transmission
  • Measles is transmitted via the airborne route and is thought to be the most infectious communicable disease
  • Measles transmission has been documented in physician offices, emergency rooms, and hospital wards; HCP have been infected in recent outbreaks
  • Good documentation and high levels of immunity minimize the amount of follow-up that needs to be done in the event of an exposure
    • Record review for hundreds to thousands staff
    • Serologic testing and vaccination
presumptive evidence of immunity to measles
Presumptive Evidence of Immunity to Measles
  • Documented administration of two doses of live measles virus vaccine on or after the first birthday and at least 28 days apart; or
  • Laboratory evidence of immunity or laboratory confirmation of disease; or
  • Birth before 1957*

Documentation of physician-diagnosed measles is no longer acceptableevidence of immunity

* Since ~5% of people born before 1957 are susceptible to measles, CDPH recommends that immunity be assessed if such HCP are exposed to measles. During an outbreak, 2 doses of MMR are recommended for unvaccinated HCP without evidence of immunity.

respiratory protection
Respiratory Protection
  • Regardless of immune status, all HCP must use respiratory protection at least as effective as an N95 respirator when in contact with measles patients
measles exposures
Measles Exposures
  • If an exposure to measles occurs in a healthcare facility CDPH recommends that all exposed HCP, regardless of age, have:
    • serological evidence of immunity to measles (IgG+); or
    • documentation of two doses of measles containing vaccine (preferably MMR) after first birthday
  • Reviewing HCP immune status for measles and testing for immunity/providing vaccine after an exposure results in considerable work for healthcare facilities
healthcare associated transmission of measles in u s healthcare facilities
Healthcare-Associated Transmission of Measles in U.S. Healthcare Facilities
  • Healthcare-associated transmission of measles is well documented
  • Measles can be transmitted up to two hours after an infectious patient has left the area
  • 11% of 127 cases were transmitted in healthcare settings; considerable economic cost and public health effort to contain (~$100,000 to $400,000)
  • Four cases of measles were acquired in a San Diego County pediatrician’s office
  • The largest nosocomial measles outbreak in 20 years occurred in Arizona in 2008
arizona measles outbreak 2008
Arizona Measles Outbreak, 2008
  • In February 2008, an infected Swiss traveler sparked a measles outbreak involving 14 cases, 7 of whom were infected in healthcare facilities; measles was not suspected until after she had been hospitalized, unisolated, for 2 days
  • Of the 11 secondary cases who accessed healthcare, 10 did not receive a prompt measles diagnosis after rash onset and only 1 was masked and isolated promptly
  • 8231 people were potentially exposed; 4793 were hospital or clinic patients and 2868 were HCP
  • 25% of 7195 screened HCP lacked evidence of measles immunity; 1583 underwent IgG testing and 121 (11%) of 1077 HCPs born >1957 and 18 (4%) of 506 HCPs born <1957 were seronegative, including 1 who acquired measles
  • Two hospitals spent ~$800,000 responding to and containing the seven measles cases in their facilities
mumps in healthcare settings
Mumps in Healthcare Settings
  • In recent outbreaks involving hospitals and long-term care facilities with adolescent and young adult patients, infection control failures resulted in nosocomial transmission
  • Exposure to mumps in healthcare settings results in added economic costs associated with furlough or reassignment of staff members from patient-care duties or the closure of wards
  • In Tennessee in 1986-87, nosocomial transmission of mumps occurred in two hospital ERs infecting 6 HCP and in two long-term care facilities infecting 9 patients
presumptive evidence of immunity to mumps
Presumptive Evidence of Immunity to Mumps
  • Documented administration of two doses of live mumps virus vaccine; or
  • Laboratory evidence of immunity or laboratory confirmation of disease; or
  • Born before 1957

Documentation of physician-diagnosed mumps is no longer acceptable evidence of immunity

mumps vaccination
Mumps Vaccination
  • All persons who work in healthcare facilities should be immune to mumps
    • HCP born during or after 1957  2 doses
    • No vaccination/immunity  2 doses (>28 days apart)
    • Only 1 dose previously  second dose
    • Birth before 1957 only presumptive evidence of immunity; consider 1 dose for unvaccinated workers without laboratory evidence of immunity
    • During an outbreak, 2 doses of vaccine recommended for workers born before 1957 who do not have evidence of immunity
mumps epidemiology
Mumps Epidemiology
  • Post-licensure studies of 1 dose of mumps vaccine showed it was 78%-91% effective in preventing clinical mumps
  • Late 1980s - early 1990s, mumps outbreaks observed in schools with extremely high (>95%) vaccination coverage, suggesting that 1 dose of mumps vaccine is insufficient to prevent mumps outbreaks in schools
  • Since the 1989 2-dose MMR requirement, incidence of mumps disease has decreased and studies of vaccine effectiveness during outbreaks suggest substantially higher levels of protection with a second dose of MMR
mumps prevention and control
Mumps Prevention and Control
  • During an outbreak, healthcare facilities should strongly consider recommending 2 doses of mumps vaccine to unvaccinated workers born before 1957 who do not have evidence of mumps immunity
  • Reviewing HCP immune status for mumps and providing serologic testing and vaccine during an outbreak is difficult
  • Facilities might consider reviewing immune status of HCP routinely and providing appropriate vaccinations, including a second dose of mumps vaccine, in conjunction with annual activities such as influenza vaccination or tuberculin testing

rubella epidemiology
Rubella Epidemiology
  • Rubella vaccines were first licensed in 1969 and rubella was declared eliminated in the U.S. in 2004
  • Rubella cases in the U.S. are now imported from regions of the world where rubella is not controlled
presumptive evidence of immunity to rubella
Presumptive Evidence of Immunity to Rubella
  • Documented administration of one dose of live rubella virus vaccine; or
  • Laboratory evidence of immunity or laboratory confirmation of disease; or
  • Born before 1957 (except premenopausal women who could become pregnant)
presumptive evidence of immunity to rubella continued
Presumptive Evidence of Immunity to Rubella, continued
  • HCP who can provide documentation of serological evidence of rubella immunity (e.g., via prenatal testing) do not need to be retested and should be considered immune
  • The principle of “once immune, always immune” also applies to measles, mumps and hepatitis B
mmr vaccination for hcp born before 1957
MMR Vaccination for HCP Born Before 1957
  • HCP born before 1957 are generally presumed to be immune to measles, mumps, and rubella, but not all are
  • Consider recommending 2 doses of MMR vaccine routinely for unvaccinated HCP born before 1957 who lack laboratory evidence of measles, mumps or rubella immunity or laboratory confirmation of disease
  • During an outbreak of measles or mumps, two doses of MMR vaccine are recommended for unvaccinated HCP born before 1957 who lack laboratory evidence of immunity or laboratory confirmation of disease; one dose of MMR recommended during a rubella outbreak
measles mumps and rubella immunity testing
Measles, Mumps and Rubella Immunity Testing
  • Testing for serologic evidence of immunity to measles, mumps or rubella is not recommended for HCP who have two documented doses of MMR vaccine or other acceptable evidence of immunity
  • If testing is inadvertently performed on HCP with documentation of vaccination and the worker is IgG negative for measles, mumps or rubella, ACIP recommends that test be assumed to be falsely negative and that the worker should be presumed immune for the purposes of preplacement screening
  • If such a worker has an exposure to measles, CDPH recommends treating as susceptible
varicella among hcp
Varicella Among HCP
  • Nosocomial transmission of is varicella is well-recognized
  • Sources
    • Patients, hospital staff, and visitors with varicella or herpes zoster
  • Airborne transmission of varicella has been demonstrated
    • Varicella has occurred in susceptible persons who had no direct contact with index case-patient
    • Virus detected in air
    • Herpes zoster may also be airborne (?)
2007 acip recommendations
2007 ACIP Recommendations
  • Serologic screening before vaccination
    • Testing unvaccinated HCP with a negative or uncertain history of varicella is likely to be cost-effective; or
    • Test all HCP, because small proportion with positive history of disease might be susceptible
  • Routine testing after 2 doses of vaccine is not recommended
    • Available commercial assays not sensitive enough and are likely to be falsely negative
    • In sensitive tests, 99% of adults develop antibodies after 2nd dose
    • If testing is done, IgG+ results can be relied upon

evidence of immunity to varicella in hcp
Evidence of Immunity to Varicella in HCP
  • Documentation of two doses of vaccine
  • Laboratory evidence of immunity or laboratory confirmation of disease
  • Diagnosis or verification of history of varicella disease or history of herpes zoster (shingles) by a healthcare provider
    • If an employee states they have had varicella or herpes zoster in the past, a healthcare provider can interview to the employee to determine if their history is compatible with one of these diagnoses; if so, this is considered evidence of immunity
evidence of immunity to varicella
Evidence of Immunity to Varicella
  • Serologic evidence of VZV infection in 96%-97% of U.S.-born adults aged 20-29 years and in 97%-99% of adults aged >30 years tested during 1998-1999
  • U.S. birth before 1980 considered evidence of immunity except for HCP, pregnant women, and immunocomprised people
  • For these three groups, certainty regarding immunity is desirable because of the possibility of nosocomial transmission to high-risk patients; transmission of the virus to the fetus, which might result in congenital varicella syndrome; and possibility of severe disease
respiratory protection67
Respiratory Protection
  • Regardless of immune status, all HCP must use respiratory protection at least as effective as an N95 respirator when in contact with varicella patients
varicella exposure to vaccinated hcp
Varicella Exposure to Vaccinated HCP
  • 2 doses - monitor daily during days 10-21 to determine clinical status, place on sick leave immediately if symptoms occur
  • 1 dose – give 2nd dose <3-5 days of exposure
    • After vaccination, management is similar to 2-dose
  • Unvaccinated HCP without immunity – postexposure vaccination and furlough days 10-21 after exposure
transmission of vaccine virus from vaccine recipients with rash
Transmission of Vaccine Virus from Vaccine Recipients with Rash
  • Risk low; transmission has been documented after exposures in households and long-term care facilities
  • No cases documented after vaccination of HCP
  • Consider precautions for HCP in whom rash occurs after vaccination
    • Avoid contact with persons without evidence of immunity at risk for severe disease and complications until all lesions resolve (i.e., are crusted over or fade away) or no new lesions appear in a 24-hour period
varicella postexposure prophylaxis
Varicella Postexposure Prophylaxis
  • Varicella vaccine is effective in preventing illness or modifying varicella severity if administered to unvaccinated children within 3 days, and possibly up to 5 days, of exposure
  • Studies only in children
  • Although postexposure use of varicella vaccine has potential applications in hospital settings, pre-exposure vaccination preferred
pertussis in the united states
Pertussis in the United States
  • Least well controlled vaccine preventable disease
  • Cyclical with peaks every 2-5 years – in 2010, California experienced an epidemic with >9,000 cases & 10 deaths
  • Most severe disease occurs among infants <6 months of age; almost all deaths are in infants <3 months of age
  • Studies have shown that ~half of the infants with pertussis were infected by a household member, most often their mother
  • Immunity via vaccine or disease wanes over time; most children last vaccinated at kindergarten are susceptible again by middle school
  • Almost all adults are susceptible; only ~6% of adults have received Tdap, which was licensed in 2005
number of reported pertussis cases by year of onset california 1914 2010






Cases per 100,000













Number of reported pertussis cases by year of onset ― California, 1914-2010*

* Includes cases reported to CDPH as of 3/9/2011

pertussis among hcp
Pertussis Among HCP
  • Nosocomial spread of pertussis documented
    • Hospitals and EDs (pediatric and adult), clinics, LTCFs
  • Sources
    • Patients, HCP with hospital or community-acquired pertussis, visitors or family members; up to 80 infections per index case
  • Incidence in HCP currently ~7% per year
  • 90% pediatric hospitals reported HCP exposures over 5-year period; 11% reported infected physicians
costs of controlling pertussis
Costs of Controlling Pertussis
  • $74,870-$174,327 per outbreak
  • $42,000-$98,000/year for pertussis exposures
    • Include identifying contacts among HCP and patients, providing postexposure prophylaxis for asymptomatic close contacts, and evaluating, treating, and placing symptomatic HCP on administrative leave until they have received effective treatment

MMWR December 15, 2006;55(RR17)

tdap vaccine
Tdap Vaccine
  • In 2005, a vaccine containing tetanus and diphtheria toxoids and acellular pertussis vaccine (Tdap) was licensed in the U.S. for persons aged 11-64 years (ADACEL®) – pertussis is not available as a single vaccine
  • In 2006, ACIP recommended that HCP in hospitals and ambulatory care settings with direct patient contact receive a single dose of Tdap as soon as feasible if they have not previously received it – this was re-emphasized in 2011 “all HCP should receive Tdap as soon as feasible”
  • HCP who have direct contact with infants <12 months of age or pregnant women should be strongly encouraged to be vaccinated
  • Regardless of age, HCP without documentation of Tdap immunization should receive it – there is no minimum interval between the last dose of Td and Tdap
implementing hospital tdap program
Implementing Hospital Tdap Program
  • Infrastructure for vaccination exists in most hospitals
    • New HCP screened and vaccinated on employment
    • Can be given at same time as influenza vaccine
    • Tiered approach option: priority given to HCP with contact with infants aged <12 months, other vulnerable groups of patients
    • As Tdap vaccination coverage in general population increases, many new HCP will already have received dose of Tdap
  • Birth hospitals should also promote Tdap vaccination of new mothers
  • Emergency departments should use Tdap
2011 acip recommendations on pertussis postexposure prophylaxis for vaccinated hcp
2011 ACIP Recommendations on Pertussis Postexposure Prophylaxis for Vaccinated HCP
  • Data on the need for postexposure prophylaxis in Tdap-vaccinated HCP are inconclusive
  • Postexposure prophylaxis is recommend for all HCP who have unprotected exposure to pertussis and are likely to expose a patient at risk for severe pertussis (e.g., hospitalized neonates)
  • Other HCP should either receive postexposure prophylaxis or be monitored for 21 days after pertussis exposure and treated at the onset of signs and symptoms of pertussis
meningococcal disease81
Meningococcal Disease
  • Caused by the bacterium N. meningitidis
  • ~185 cases/year in California; peaks in winter
  • Even with proper treatment, it may progress rapidly and result in death; 10-20% survivors have sequelae
  • Most cases are caused by five N. meningitidis serogroups: A, B, C, W-135 and Y
  • Serogroup B is not contained in the vaccine; > 1/3 of cases in California are serogroup B and are not vaccine preventable
meningococcal vaccine
Meningococcal Vaccine
  • Microbiologists routinely exposed to isolates of N. meningitdis are considered to be at increased risk for meningococcal disease and are recommended to receive vaccine
  • Two types of quadrivalent meningococcal vaccine are available – both protect against infection with serogroups A, C, W-135 and Y (not against B)
    • Meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MCV4) for workers through 55 years of age
    • Meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine (MPSV4) for workers over 55 years of age
    • Employees >55 years who have received MPSV4 3-5 years previously should be revaccinated with MCV4 if still at increased risk

new acip recommendations
New ACIP Recommendations
  • HCP with anatomic or functional asplenia, persistent complement component deficiencies, or HIV should now receive a 2-dose primary series of meningococcal conjugate vaccine
  • Those HCP who remain in groups at high-risk are recommended to be revaccinated every 5 years
other resources for occupational health
Other Resources for Occupational Health
  • Medical center occupational and employee health issues (MCOH-EH) listserv
  • American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine