Chapter 4
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Chapter 4 . Body Systems 6 th Grade Science. How is the body organized?. The human body is made up of more than __ trillion cells. Every cell is part of a __________ unit which makes up the body.

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Chapter 4

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Chapter 4

Chapter 4

Body Systems

6th Grade Science


How is the body organized

How is the body organized?

  • The human body is made up of more than __ trillion cells.

  • Every cell is part of a __________ unit which makes up the body.

  • Cells work together and depend on each other to keep the body’s internal conditions in _______.

  • ___________processes take place in the cells to maintain internal conditions.

75

living

balance

Chemical


Chemical processes in cells

Chemical Processes in Cells

  • Important life processes can only occur in the cells at a particular temperature range - ___________.

  • Cells in different parts of the body work together to maintain this internal _________.

  • Cells are ___________ in a way that makes them efficient.

  • Approximately _______ cells could cover the head of a pin.

37˚ C (98.6˚ F)

temperature

organized

10,000


Levels of organization

Levels of Organization

  • All cells are made up of the same basic _______ (same basic parts).

  • Each cell is adapted to perform a very specific ________.

  • Cells are organized by the ________ that they perform.

  • Similar cells that work together to perform a particular function in the body make up _______.

structure

function

function

tissues


Cells tissues organs

Cells, Tissues, Organs

  • Cells that can ________, or shorten make up ________ tissues

  • Cells that carry ________ from one cell to another make up ________ tissue.

  • The ________ is made up of _______ tissue.

  • When two or more tissues work together they form an _________.

  • Example: Your heart is an ______ that is made up of many different types of ______. (muscle, nerve)

contract

muscle

messages

nerve

brain

nerve

organ

organ

tissues


Organ systems

Organ Systems

  • Cells are organized to form ___________.

  • Tissues are organized to form _________.

  • Organs are organized to form _____________.

  • Examples of organ systems:

    • _____________________________

    • _____________________________

    • _____________________________

    • _____________________________

    • ______________________________

tissues

organs

Organ systems

Circulatory

Muscular

Digestive

Nervous

Endocrine

Reproductive

Excretaory

Respiratory

Immune

Skeletal


Example the heart

Example: The Heart

  • The heart is made up of _______ cells that have many __________ to provide energy for the heart to beat constantly.

  • The arrangement of muscle cells in the heart form heart ________ which allows the heart to contract and relax as it beats.

  • The heart itself is an _________ which is made up of muscle tissues, tissues that provide support and protection, and tissues that form its blood vessels.

muscle

mitochondria

tissues

organ


Blood cells

Blood cells

  • ______ blood cells carry oxygen throughout the body so that all cells can carry out life functions.

  • ________ blood cells help to fight disease-causing invaders that attack the body.

  • Although each person is unique, the structure and function of the cells, tissues, and organ are similar in some ways.

  • These similarities enable other human beings to donate blood and entire organs.

Red

White


Skeletal system

Skeletal system

  • Bones are ________ that make up the make up the skeletal system.

  • Bones are made up of living ________, as well as non-living _________ that are deposited by bone ________.

    The functions of the skeletal system:

    1. ____________

    2. _______________

    3. _________________

    4. ___________________

organs

tissues

minerals

cells

Provides support

Protects organs

Makes new blood cells

Stores important minerals


Parts of the bone

Parts of the Bone

  • Parts of the bone:

    1. Thin, tough outer covering on the surface of the bone is living __________.

    2. ___________ in the bone carry blood which supplies materials that none cells need. Blood also removes ______ that bone cells produce.

    3. _________ bone is the hardest material in the human body, except for tooth enamel – it is made up of __________.

    4. _______ bone tissue makes the bone lightweight.

    5. __________ in the spongy bone makes new _______________.

tissue

Blood vessels

wastes

Compact

Bony tubes

Spongy

Red Marrow

Red blood cells


Chapter 4 2956489

  • __________ stores fat.

    - As your body grows from an infant to an adult, the __________ (flexible material) is replaced by hard ________.

    -__________ and __________ make up the skeletal system

    Skull, ribcage, and back bone - ______________

    Bones store minerals such as _______________

Yellow marrow

cartilage

bone

Cartilage

bone

Protect important organs

Calcium and phosphorous


Minerals in the bones

Minerals in the Bones

  • Minerals are __________ from the bone as the body needs them

  • _________________ make bones hard and strong.

  • As people grow older, they lose _______ in their bones. The bones become weakened and can break easily. This is known as _______________.

released

Calcium and phosphorus

calcium

osteoporosis


Joints

Joints

  • A __________is a place where two bones meet.

  • Flexible ___________ covers and protects the ends of bones at ________.

  • The _______ of cartilage surfaces and the way they fit together determines the _________ a joint can move.

  • Strong cords of tissue called ________ connect the bones in each joint

joint

cartilage

joints

shape

direction

ligaments


Muscular system

Muscular system

  • Bones support the body while ______ allow you to move.

  • _________ muscles in the body make up about ________ of your body weight.

  • Muscles and tissues that attach tem to the bone make up the _______________.

  • The body has _____ types of muscle tissues.

muscles

600

40-50%

Muscular system

3


3 types of muscles

3 Types of Muscles

  • 1. _________ Muscle – muscle tissue in your heart. Contracts without getting tired.

  • 2. __________ Muscle – found in the organs of the digestive system and blood vessels.

  • Cardiac and Smooth Muscles are INVOLUNTARY!! They work automatically to control movements inside your body.

  • 3. _________Muscles – voluntary muscles that move your arms and legs

Cardiac

Smooth

Skeletal


Movement

Movement

  • All muscles can contract but only ________ muscles are responsible for ___________.

  • ________ and _______ work together to move your body.

  • Muscles attach to opposite sides of a ______ at a ____. When one muscle contracts and pulls the bone, the opposite muscle relaxes. Movement results in the direction of the pulling muscle

skeletal

movement

Bones

muscles

bone

joint


Nervous system

Nervous system

  • Your nervous system includes:

    • ______________

    • ______________

    • ______________

    • ______________

      The nervous system extends to all of the parts of the body.

Brain

Spinal cord

Nerves

Sense Organs


Parts of the brain

Parts of the Brain

  • 1. ________ - maintains blood pressure, heartbeat, respiration, and digestion.

  • 2. __________ - controls balance and posture; helps fine tune movements

  • 3. __________ - Interprets information that senses gather; controls muscle movement, thinking, and language.

Brain stem

Cerebellum

Cerebrum


Messages responses

Messages / Responses

  • The _______ interprets a message from one of your senses.

  • The brain ________ by sending ____________ back through the ____________ to the _________ for movement or action.

brain

responds

Nerve impulses

Spinal cord

muscles


Nerve cells

Nerve cells

  • Nerve cells are called ________.

  • __________ pass messages throughout your body.

  • Each neuron has a _________ with many branches.

  • ____________ are short branches that carry messages from other neurons to the cell body.

  • ___________ are long branches which carry messages away from the cell body to other neurons. A neuron has many dendrites but only one axon.

neurons

Neurons

Cell body

Dendrites

Axons


Impulses

Impulses

  • _________ - a message that travels along a neuron and from one neuron to the next.

  • Impulses can travel in only _____ direction – from the _______ of one neuron to the __________ of another neuron.

  • Impulses travel along neurons to the _____.

  • Impulses → brain → sends messages to act → pass through the __________.

Impulse

one

axon

dendrite

brain

Spinal cord


Reflexes

Reflexes

  • __________ is a response that happens automatically.

  • Example: When you touch your hand to a hot stove and pull your hand away. You do not have to “think” about pulling your hand away – you just do it!

Reflex


Endocrine system

Endocrine System

  • The nervous system helps to maintain balance in the body’s processes by interpreting information and telling the parts of the body to act.

  • The __________ system also helps to balance the body’s processes such as growth and maintaining sugar levels.

  • The endocrine system is made up of ________.

Endocrine

glands


Glands

Glands

  • _____ - an organ that produces a chemical

  • _______________ - an organ that releases chemical substances directly into the blood.

  • ___________ - the substances that the endocrine glands release into the blood – hormones control many of your body’s functions.

  • The endocrine system releases _______ when your body needs them.

gland

Endocrine gland

hormones

hormones


Endocrine glands

Endocrine Glands

  • Maintains internal balance by releasing hormones to _________ throughout the body.

  • ________ - each kind of hormone travels in the blood to a particular area in the body to perform certain tasks.

  • ______________ - a circular pathway that sends information back and forth from one part of the body to another.

Target cells

Target cells

Biofeedback loop


Endocrine glands1

Endocrine Glands


Transport systems of the body

Transport Systems of the Body

  • The transport systems of the body include:

    • ______________ - takes in materials needed by the body and breaks them down into a useable forms

    • ______________ - carry blood and nutrients to cells in all parts of the body

    • _______________ - takes in oxygen that cells need and gets rid of carbon dioxide wastes that cells produce.

Digestive System

Circulatory System

Respiratory System


Digestive system

Digestive System

  • Organs of the _________ system work together to break down food into a useable form. These organs include:

    • _____- produces _____ which helps to digest fat. The liver also stores some nutrients and breaks down harmful substances in the blood.

    • _______________ - bile is stored until it is released to the ______________.

      – ___________ - produces _________ that flow into the small intestine.

digestive

Liver

bile

Gallbladder

Small intestine

Pancreas

enzymes


Process of digestion

Process of Digestion

  • ________ - help break down food into nutrients

  • 1. _______ - mechanical digestion begins. ______ begins the process of _______ digestion.

  • 2. _________ - tongue pushes the softened moistened food towards the esophagus. The smooth muscles of the esophagus push the food down to the stomach.

Enzymes

Mouth

Chemical

Saliva

Esophagus


Process of digestion continued

Process of Digestion Continued

  • 3. _______ - continues mechanical digestion by squeezing the contents with muscle contractions. ______ in the stomach produce ______ and _______ that breakdown __________.

  • 4. ____________ - most digestion takes place here.

    • ____- tiny finger-like structures line the small intestine which increases the surface area for nutrient absorption into the blood stream.

Stomach

Glands

enzymes

acids

proteins

Small Intestine

Villi


Process of digestion continued1

Process of Digestion Continued

  • 5. ____________ - materials that cannot be absorbed into the bloodstream pass into the large intestine. Very little ______ takes place here. Water is absorbed and solid wastes are formed and stored until the body is ready to excrete them.

Large Intestine

digestion


Circulatory system

Circulatory System

  • ___ in the small intestine contain ________that pick up nutrients and pass them into the __________.

  • ______________ transports nutrients to all the parts of the body.

  • The circulatory system is made up of:

    • 1. __________

    • 2.___________

    • 3.____________

Villi

Blood cells

Blood stream

Circulatory system

Blood

Heart

Blood Vessels


The circulatory system consists of three elements

The circulatory system consists of THREE elements


Functions of the blood

Functions of the Blood

  • _________has several different parts, each part has a different function

  • The biggest part of the blood is made up of a liquid called _________.

  • The cells in the body depend on the plasma to carry food from the ____________ to the cells

  • Cells get _________ from the plasma

  • _________moves other important chemicals and hormones around the body

Blood

plasma

Digestive system

water

Plasma


Blood cells1

Blood Cells

  • There are three types of blood cells:

    • Red blood cells

    • White Blood Cells

    • Platelets

  • Cells need oxygen to get energy from _______.

  • ___________ are bright red when they are carrying _________.

  • After the cells give the oxygen to the cells that need it, their color changes to ________ red.

food

Red Blood Cells

oxygen

dark


Parts of the blood

Parts of the Blood

  • _______________ protect the body against germs and harmful things

  • The number of white blood cells is always changing – the body will make more white blood cells when it needs to ________ infection.

  • _____________ are pieces of cells that float in the blood

  • _____________help to stop bleeding by clotting

  • ___________ makes up more than half of the blood

  • ______________ make up a little less than half of the blood

  • ________________ and ______________ make up a very small portion of the blood.

White blood cells

fight

platelets

platelets

plasma

Red Blood cells

White Blood Cells

platelets


Types of blood cells

Types of Blood Cells


Arteries capillaries and veins

Arteries, Capillaries, and Veins

  • __________can be thought of as highways that your blood uses to move through your body.

  • Three kinds of blood vessels:

    • ____________

    • ____________

    • _____________

      Each different blood vessel has a different ___________ that helps it do its job.

Blood Vessels

arteries

capillaries

Veins

Structure


Arteries

Arteries

  • __________ are blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart to other parts of the body

  • Arteries have ________, muscular walls that stretch when the heart pumps blood to it.

  • Arteries branch into smaller and smaller tubes until they branch into the smallest blood vessel in the body, the ________.

Arteries

thick

capillaries


Capillaries

Capillaries

cell

  • The walls of the capillaries are only one _____ thick.

  • The tubes are so narrow that ____________ must travel in a single file line through them

  • _____ can easily pass through these thin walls

  • ______ moves from the blood into the capillaries to the cells

  • _____________ and other wastes go in the opposite direction from oxygen through the capillaries

red blood cells

Gases

oxygen

Carbon dioxide


Veins

Veins

  • Capillaries join together to form _________

  • _____ carry blood from cells back to the heart

  • The tiny veins formed by the capillaries join many times to form larger ____

  • Veins have _____-flaps that act like doors to keep blood flowing in one direction.

  • Arteries and capillaries do not have ________

  • The pumping of the heart keeps blood flowing in the right direction through the capillaries and arteries.

veins

veins

veins.

valves

valves


Cool fact

COOL FACT

The network of blood vessels in the average adult human measures over 60,000 miles! If unraveled, it could wrap around the Earth’s equator over two times!


Arteries veins

Arteries & Veins

  • The largest ARTERY in the body is the AORTA, which carries blood away from the heart to the rest of the body (except for the lungs).

  • The two largest VEINS in the body are the superior and inferior VENA CAVA, which carry blood toward the heart from the rest of the body (except for the lungs).


The heart

The Heart

  • The word “cardio” is Greek for “HEART”

  • The human heart (as with other mammals and birds) consists of 4 chambers


Chambers of the heart

Chambers of the Heart

There are two ATRIA, or upper chambers.

There are two VENTRICLES, or lower chambers.


Respiratory system

Respiratory System

All cells in your body need ______.

Cells use oxygen to release ________ from nutrients

Cells produce _____________ as a waste.

_____delivers _______ and removes _________

from the body.

Nose → trachea → lungs → bronchial tubes → bronchioles → alveoli

oxygen

energy

Carbon Dioxide gas

Blood

Carbon Dioxide

oxygen


Alveoli

Alveoli

  • _________ - air sacs at the end of the bronchioles. ______enters the blood and _____________ is removed in the alveoli.

  • _________ cover the alveoli.

alveoili

Oxygen

Carbon Dioxide gas

Capillaries


Immune system

Immune System

  • ___________ are organisms such as bacteria, viruses, and fungi that can cause diseases.

  • _____________ helps your body defend itself against _________.

  • How your body defends itself:

    • ______ - protective barrier

    • ______ - wash away bacteria

    • _______ - nose, mouth and throat trap pathogens

    • _________, ___________ in the stomach, and _______ such as sneezing and coughing

pathogens

Immune System

pathogens

skin

tears

mucus

saliva

Gastric juices

reflexes


When a pathogen enters the body

When a Pathogen Enters the Body

  • ____________ recognizes the pathogen and reproduces itself many times to fight against it.

  • Some white blood cells alert other white blood cells to produce ________ - chemicals that kill specific pathogens.

  • Other white blood cells attack body cells that contain the ________ - they kill the infected cell and the pathogens.

White Blood Cell

antibodies

pathogens


Systems working together

Systems working together


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