Psychosocial OT Mary Reilly Gail Fidler Group Work

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Psychosocial OT Mary Reilly Gail Fidler Group Work

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1. Psychosocial OT Mary Reilly Gail Fidler Group Work Emily K. Schulz, Ph.D., Ph.D., OTR/L, CFLE OT 606

2. Mary Reilly – Occupational Behavior Retired Captain Mary Reilly ’51, a distinguished USC professor who gained international renown in the late 1960s for her groundbreaking insights into occupational behavior. Reilly is considered by many to have been the voice of democracy for her profession, broadening its focus to make it truly responsive to the occupational needs of the American people. During World War II, shiploads of maimed soldiers arrived in rehab hospitals across the country, and occupational therapists helped them get back to a meaningful life. After the war, “OT became more and more medicalized,” recounts associate professor Diane Parham. The rise of “science” in the medical model, she notes, also drove sister disciplines like nursing toward measurement of physical details and observable behavior. “It was Mary Reilly who said: ‘Hey everybody, wake up. We have to get back to the idea of why our profession exists,’” Parham says. “She moved the whole profession of OT away from simply looking at physical details about an individual client, and back to the idea of using time to be engaged in meaningful activity.” And it was Reilly, now retired and living in Fairfield, Calif., who boldly declared occupational therapy to be one of the great ideas of the 20th century.

3. Mary Reilly – Occupational Behavior Four Themes: Work and Play Adaptation The Motivation of Occupation Temporal Adaptation Occupational Roles

4. Mary Reilly – Occupational Behavior The Motivation of Occupation Occupation is intrinsically motivating Humans need to be competent and achieve humans have a need to produce, create, master and improve the environment

5. Mary Reilly – Occupational Behavior Work and Play Adaptation and Occupation is a landscape to which the individual must adapt Must have basic occupational skills in order to adapt (motor, social, decision making, time use, self-care, specific work/play skills). Occupational Roles: Mediate between the social environment and contributions of the individual Occupational Career – Comprised of an individual’s roles across the life span. Roles are defined as behavioral expectations of one’s position or status in a social system – include child’s play, family roles, friendship, student roles, adult worker, retiree. Developmental aspects of work and play There is a bridge between the skills and habits of a child at play and the skills and habits of an adult at work, engaged in adult roles

6. Mary Reilly – Occupational Behavior Occupational Roles: The nature of occupational role is twofold: Socialization – people learn through the social environment the skills, attitudes and behaviors needed for a particular role through observation of role models, etc. Occupational choice – people also select and make commitments to certain occupational roles. human beings acquire interests, abilities and skills, habits of cooperation and competition to engage in occupational roles (preschooler, student, housewife, retiree, paid worker, etc)

7. Mary Reilly – Occupational Behavior Work and Play Adaptation and Occupation is a landscape to which the individual must adapt Must have basic occupational skills in order to adapt (motor, social, decision making, time use, self-care, specific work/play skills). Temporal Adaptation Need to achieve an appropriate balance between activities of work, rest, play and sleep; habits are basic structures that give temporal order to daily behavior and integrate skills into routines organized to meet a person’s daily demands. Skills must be organized into patterns of behavior that allow for a balanced lifestyle and meet environmental demands. Relationship of health and human adaptation Health is equated to level of adaptation to environment rather than freedom from pathology What early leader of the profession said this also? (Balance, habits, rhythms)

8. Gail Fidler – Activity Analysis Gail Fidler is the founder of a task-oriented group developed from her practice and research at the New York Institute in the 1960s. She was influenced by psychoanalytic and ego psychology, sociology, and behavioral theories.

9. Gail Fidler – Activity Analysis Non-Human Environment and Object Relations - as a means of communicating feelings, needs, ideations; mediation between inner and outer world; achievement of sense of self.

10. Gail Fidler – Activity Analysis Communication Process Language is viewed as an expression of needs, attitudes, and emotions. Non-verbal communication and actions reveal the unconscious.

11. Gail Fidler – Activity Analysis Activity Analysis Includes: Motion, procedures, materials, creativity, symbols, hostile and aggressive components, control, predictability, narcissism, sexual identification, dependence, reality testing, group relatedness; Also: motor, sensory integrative, psychological, cultural, and interpersonal skills

12. Gail Fidler – Activity Analysis Doing performing, producing, or causing purposeful action in order to: Test a skill Clarify a relationship Create an end product

13. Gail Fidler – Activity Analysis Competency and Mastery Social feedback influences sense of: competency, mastery, achievement, adaptation, and self-esteem.

14. Gail Fidler – Activity Analysis Integrative Process Engagement in purposeful activity facilitates the internal sensory, motor, cognitive, and psychological processes

15. Gail Fidler – Activity Analysis Health and Illness Health = ability to perform roles and tasks for self maintenance, address personal needs, contribute to welfare of others Illness = results when functions and adaptations are impeded

16. Group Work Small Task Groups Therapeutic Peer Support Focus or Study Consultation and Supervision

17. Group Work Therapeutic – focus on facilitating change in the individual; restore or develop function; prevent problems; develop strengths (6-10 clients)

18. Group Work Peer Support – focus on providing support for people, families, caregivers, partners who have a problem/disability/diagnosis in common. Professional may be active as teacher/leader or consultative/facilitator. Can be instructional. (Large or small as needed)

19. Group Work Focus or Study – Organized to generate research hypotheses or discuss a specific issue/topic. Clients with common chronic problems may find this format valuable to solve problems.

20. Group Work Consultation and Supervision – Can disciplinary or interdisciplinary – Therapists receive peer group feedback on professional practice

25. Questions and Answers ?

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