Internationalism and Health. Lecture:. Health and the Doctrine of Development. Aaron Pascal Mauck MA, PhD. 3/14/2013. DATE. LECTURER. The Doctrine of Development Economic Development and Health WHO Development Policies, 1948-1970 WHO Development Policies in Transition, 1970-1978.
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Health and the Doctrine of Development
Aaron Pascal Mauck MA, PhD
Development is broadly linked to modernization theory, which tends to posit
A single, generally unidirectional process of social evolution away from
Traditional societies towards modern ones. Modernity is often associated
With positive political, social, and economic goals.
Development became an explicit international goal in the aftermath of WWII
As a strategy for rebuilding the global economy, modernizing post-colonial
Nations, and pursuing the Cold War
Development policies have often focused on economic development as the
key to other forms of development. Health policies have played a secondary but
important role in development models through their links to the economy.
From the forties through the sixties, the state played a large role in promoting
Development through support of industrialization. By the eighties,
market- centered models neoliberalPolicies stressing comparative advantage
began to replace state-centered models.
“More than half the people of the world are living in conditions approaching misery. Their food is inadequate, they are victims of disease. Their economic life is primitive and stagnant. Their poverty is a handicap and a threat both to them and to more prosperous areas. For the first time in history humanity possesses the knowledge and the skill to relieve the suffering of these people ... I believe that we should make available to peace-loving peoples the benefits of our store of technical knowledge in order to help them realize their aspirations for a better life… What we envisage is a program of development based on the concepts of democratic fair dealing ... Greater production is the key to prosperity and peace. And the key to greater production is a wider and more vigorous application of modem scientific and technical knowledge”
Economic development was facilitated by the creation
of national and international organizations with explicit
development goals, largely related to the reorganization
Of land, labor, and capital along “modern” lines
World Bank was established in 1944 with the official goal
Of alleviating poverty. Its initial focus was on European
Recovery, but shifted to economically developing
Countries after the introduction of the Marshall Plan.
From 1948-1968, World Bank loans were relatively small
And were linked to infrastructural improvements. After
1968 the loan program expanded, and shifted towards
Social services and other economic sectors
The WHO was created in affiliation with the
UN, and like the UN had an explicitly
International approach designed to control the
Impact of national politics in shaping its agenda
The constitution of the World Health Organization
was signed by all 61 countries of the UN by
1946. The first meeting of the World Health
Assembly took place in 1948
The WHO incorporated both the Office International d'HygiènePublique and the
League of Nations Health Organization , but developed an agenda of disease
Control and eradication based on the advances that had taken place in WWII
Central to early WHO activities were global activities to control infectious diseases
Like gonorrhea, syphilis, and tuberculosis, and parasitic diseases like malaria.
This reflected the presence of new tools: antibiotics and pesticides.
G. Brock Chisholm , the first president, adopted an explicitly apolitical stance, and
Worked to maintain membership even with the temporary attrition of Eastern Bloc
Countries between 1953 and 1958.