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North Florida FSDO. Instructor and Student Responsibilities Who Is In Charge? Risk Management Teaching Judgment. Central Florida Pilots. Dennis H. Whitley, FAASTeam . June 4, 2013. Instructor / Student Relationships. Attitude Indicators. Attitude Indicators. Attitude Indicators.

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North florida fsdo

North Florida FSDO

Instructor and Student Responsibilities

Who Is In Charge?

Risk Management

Teaching Judgment

Central Florida Pilots

Dennis H. Whitley, FAASTeam

June 4, 2013


Instructor / Student

Relationships






Attitude Indicators

Professional


Attitude Indicators

Professional Not So Pro



Professional
Professional

A professional is a person who is paid to undertake a specialized set of tasks and to complete them for a fee. The traditional professions were doctors, engineers, lawyers, architects and commissioned military officers.

Today, the term is applied to nurses, accountants, educators, scientists, technology experts, social workers, artists,


Professional1
Professional

A professional is a person who is paid to undertake a specialized set of tasks and to complete them for a fee. The traditional professions were doctors, engineers, lawyers, architects and commissioned military officers.

Today, the term is applied to nurses, accountants, educators, scientists, technology experts, social workers, artists,

And - Pilots !!!


Professional2
Professional

A professional is a person who is paid to undertake a specialized set of tasks and to complete them for a fee. The traditional professions were doctors, engineers, lawyers, architects and commissioned military officers.

Today, the term is applied to nurses, accountants, educators, scientists, technology experts, social workers, artists,

And - Flight Instructors !!!


Professional3
Professional

A professional is a person who is paid to undertake a specialized set of tasks and to complete them for a fee. The traditional professions were doctors, engineers, lawyers, architects and commissioned military officers.

Today, the term is applied to nurses, accountants, educators, scientists, technology experts, social workers, artists,

And - Designated Pilot Examiners   


Types of flight instructors
Types of Flight Instructors

KXXX Backyard / Restaurant Instruction

KXYZ Small Town Flying Club

KBBB Flight Inc. Part 61

KAAA Pro Flight Corp.Part 141-142


Types of flight environments
Types of Flight Environments

FD77-48X LSA VFR Weekends

KZPH - KLAL C-172 VFR Week days

KVDF - KSPG SR 22 IFR Week days

KPIE - KSRQ KA-200 IFR Daily

KTPA - KMCO B737 Air Carrier



Who is in charge1
Who is in Charge ?

According to FAR 91.3….


Who is in charge2
Who is in Charge ?

According to FAR 91.3….

(a) The pilot in command of an aircraft is directly responsible for, and is the final authority as to, the operation of that aircraft.

(b) In an in-flight emergency requiring immediate action, the pilot in command may deviate from any rule of this part to the extent required to meet that emergency.

(c) Each pilot in command who deviates from a rule under paragraph (b) of this section shall, upon the request of the Administrator, send a written report of that deviation to the Administrator.


Who is in charge3
Who is in Charge ?

Who is the Pilot In Command?


Who is in charge4
Who is in Charge ?

Who is the Pilot In Command?

In most cases it is relatively easy to determine the person responsible as pilot in command of an aircraft. The FARs generally define the term “pilot in command” as the person who

(1) has final authority and responsibility for the operation and safety of the flight;

(2) has been designated as the pilot in command before or during the flight; and,

(3) holds the appropriate category, class, and type rating, if appropriate, for the conduct of the flight.2



Warning1
WARNING !!!

DO NOT CHALLENGE THE RULES 


Warning2
WARNING !!!

DO NOT CHALLENGE THE RULES 

The Answer of “Common Sense and Safety”

Will always be the correct answer !!!


What is being done to achieve a safer flying environment
What is being done to achieve a safer flying environment?


What is being done to achieve a safer flying environment education
What is being done to achieve a safer flying environment?Education !!!


Faasteam safety seminars on line courses
FAASTeam Safety SeminarsOn Line Courses

Seminars like the very one

you are attending this evening.


Flight instructor special emphasis program
Flight InstructorSpecial Emphasis Program

The North Florida FSDOs have oversight responsibility for the largest volume of flight training and pilot certification activity within the purview of the Federal Aviation Administration


Florida fsdo borders
Florida FSDO Borders

Alabama FSDO SO09

North Florida FSDO

SO15 & SO35

South Florida FSDO SO19


Tampa 33617 25nm radius 8081 pilots
Tampa – 33617 - 25NM Radius= 8081 Pilots

North Florida FSDO SO35


Tampa 33617 25nm radius 1684 inst
Tampa – 33617 - 25NM Radius= 1684 Inst.

North Florida FSDO SO35




Flight instructor special emphasis program1
FLIGHT INSTRUCTOR SPECIAL EMPHASIS PROGRAM

In response to a high number of aircraft accidents and incidents involving flight training aircraft, the Orlando and Tampa FSDO along with the FAA Safety Program Managers initiated the first Flight Instructor Special Emphasis Program on September 1, 1998.

This program has evolved into one of the most important activities conducted by the FAA Safety Team or FAASTeam in the North Florida FSDO area of responsibility. This has become a model for similar CFI programs across the country.


Flight instructor special emphasis program2
FLIGHT INSTRUCTOR SPECIAL EMPHASIS PROGRAM

Designed to provide more direct and focusedFAA involvement with the Flight Training Community.

  • Accomplished in a positive, educationallyoriented manner.


Flight instructor special emphasis program3
FLIGHT INSTRUCTOR SPECIAL EMPHASIS PROGRAM

Program Goals

  • Improve the quality of flight training within the flight schools

  • Increase awareness among flight instructors of their instructional responsibilities

  • Reduce the number of flight training accidents and incidents


Flight instructor special emphasis program4
FLIGHT INSTRUCTOR SPECIAL EMPHASIS PROGRAM

Core Elements of Program

  • Initial Flight Instructor Certification

  • Flight Training Accident & Incident Investigations

  • Bi-weekly CFI/DPE Special Emphasis Meetings

  • Pilot Examiner Oversight

  • Part 141 Pilot School Oversight


Flight instructor special emphasis program5
FLIGHT INSTRUCTOR SPECIAL EMPHASIS PROGRAM

FAA Safety Team (FAASTeam) Support

  • “CFI / DPE Special Emphasis Program” Meetings

  • Web Site: FAASafety.gov

  • LAL FAA Safety Center Presentations

  • Web Site: http://www.faa.gov/fsdo/orl

  • FAASTeam CFI Workshop National Program

  • Web Site: http://www.faa.gov/tv


Flight instructor special emphasis program6
FLIGHT INSTRUCTOR SPECIAL EMPHASIS PROGRAM

The Program has demonstrated that a

PARTNERSHIP

between the FAA and the Flight Training Community can

ACHIEVEREMARKABLE RESULTS


Accident incident analysis
Accident & Incident Analysis PROGRAM

The Orlando and Tampa FSDO has carefully analyzed 386 flight training accidents & incidents occurring within the district since the beginning of FY 1999 to determine:

  • Causal Factors

  • Trends

  • Training Deficiencies


Orlando fsdo accident incident summary
ORLANDO FSDO ACCIDENT & INCIDENT SUMMARY PROGRAM

FLIGHT TRAINING ACCIDENTS & INCIDENTS

1998199920002001200220032004

60 38 24 28 22 18 12

2005200620072008200920102011

18 25 30 44 24 32 33

2012

17


Fy 2007 accident incident detailed summary
FY 2007 ACCIDENT & INCIDENT DETAILED SUMMARY PROGRAM

OCCURRENCESTUDENT & CFISOLO STUDENT

COLLISION ON GND 1

GO AROUND (single eng.) 1

HELO HOVER 3

HELO SLOPE LND 1

HELO AUTOROTATION 1 1

WAKE TURBULENCE 1

FUEL EXHAUSTION 1

HARD LANDING (180 accu. lnd.) 1

GEAR-UP 3

LANDING (loss of control) 214


Fy 2008 accident incident detailed summary
FY 2008 ACCIDENT & INCIDENT DETAILED SUMMARY PROGRAM

OCCURRENCE STUDENT & CFISOLO STUDENT

COLLISION ON GND 1 3

TAKEOFF 3

HARD LANDING 2

GEAR-UP 6

GEAR DOWN WATER LANDING 1

HELO HARD LANDING 1

HELO AUTOROTATION 1

HELO GROUND VIBRATION 1

UNLATCHED CANOPY / DOOR 1 1

SR-20 BRAKE FIRE 1

WATER IN FUEL 1

LANDING (loss of control) 219


Fy 2009 accident incident detailed summary
FY 2009 ACCIDENT & INCIDENT DETAILED SUMMARY PROGRAM

OCCURRENCE STUDENT & CFISOLO STUDENT

COLLISION ON GND 1 1

HARD LANDING 3

GEAR-UP 6

HELO (dynamic rollover) 1

HELO (hard landing) 1

FUEL EXHAUSTION 1

STALL / SPIN 1

TAKEOFF (loss of control) 1

GLIDER (off airport landing) 1

LANDING (loss of control) 25


Fy 2010 accident incident detailed summary
FY 2010 ACCIDENT & INCIDENT DETAILED SUMMARY PROGRAM

OCCURRENCE STUDENT & CFISOLO STUDENT

COLLISION ON GND 1

HELO (hard landing) 3

FUEL MISMANAGEMENT 1 1

GEAR-UP 4

TAKEOFF (loss of control) 1

LANDING (loss of control) 615


Fy 2011 accident incident detailed summary
FY 2011 ACCIDENT & INCIDENT DETAILED SUMMARY PROGRAM

OCCURRENCE STUDENT & CFISOLO STUDENT

COLLISION ON GND 1

STALL / SPIN 2

FUEL EXHAUSTION 1

HELICOPTER AUTOROTATION 1

HELICOPTER GRASS FIRE 1

GEAR-UP 4

LANDING (loss of control) 320


Fy 2012 accident incident detailed summary
FY 2012 ACCIDENT & INCIDENT DETAILED SUMMARY PROGRAM

OCCURRENCE STUDENT & CFISOLO STUDENT

COLLISION ON GND 1 1

HELICOPTER HARD LANDING 2

HELICOPTER DYNAM. ROLL. 1

GEAR-UP 21

ENGINE FIRE 1

HARD LANDING 2

ABORTED TAKEOFF 2

LANDING (loss of control) 04


Major contributor to 2012 event reduction
Major Contributor to 2012 Event Reduction PROGRAM

Less Student Pilot Loss of Control During Landing Events

YearTotal EventsStudent L.O.C.Ratio

2007 30 14 47 %

2008 44 19 43 %

2009 24 5 21 %

2010 32 15 47 %

2011 33 20 61 %

2012 17 4 24 %


Other major contributors to orl tpa flight training accidents incidents
Other Major Contributors to ORL – TPA PROGRAM Flight Training Accidents & Incidents

Student & CFI hard landings, gear-ups, & loss of control

YearTotal EventsLanding EventsRatio

2007 30 20 67 %

2008 44 30 68 %

2009 24 16 67 %

2010 32 25 78 %

2011 33 27 82 %

2012 17 9 52 %

2013 4 4 100 %


Fy 2013 accident incident detailed summary
FY 2013 ACCIDENT & INCIDENT DETAILED SUMMARY PROGRAM

OCCURRENCE STUDENT & CFISOLO STUDENT

GEAR-UP 1

HARD LANDING 1*

* during practical test

LANDING (loss of control) 02


Orlando tampa fsdo efforts
Orlando - Tampa FSDO Efforts PROGRAM

Orlando and Tampa FSDO Inspectors, Pilot Examiners, and Pilot Schools have worked diligently to achieve a reduction in the number of landing accidents and incidents occurring during flight training within the District.


Examiner responsibilities
Examiner Responsibilities PROGRAM

Examiner Special Emphasis Initiatives

  • Place increased emphasis upon landings and go- arounds during practical tests at all certificate levels.

  • Place significant emphasis upon proper instructional techniques and demonstration of landings and go-arounds during flight instructor practical tests.

  • Develop scenario based questions applicable to flight instructor responsibilities associated with supervising student solo flights.

  • Test flight instructor “student error” intervention.


Pilot school responsibilities
Pilot School Responsibilities PROGRAM

Pilot School Special Emphasis Initiatives

  • Pre-solo stage checks by senior instructors

  • Additional supervised solo operations

  • Enhanced dual cross-country training

  • Supervised solo at cross-country destinations


Flight instructor student solo responsibilities
Flight Instructor /Student PROGRAMSolo Responsibilities

If a student cannot perform the “Solo Checklist ” functions without guidance or assistance from the flight instructor, then the student is not ready to solo


Examiner responsibility
Examiner Responsibility PROGRAM

If an applicant cannot perform the functions of the “Solo Checklist ” during a practical test, then the applicant fails the test.

All 10 items on the “Solo Checklist” are supported by the applicable PTS and Airplane Flying Handbook


Opportunities for improvement
Opportunities for Improvement PROGRAM

Examiner Special Emphasis Initiatives

Place increased emphasis upon landings and gear operation during practical tests at all certificate levels.

Place significant emphasis upon proper instructional techniques and demonstration of landings and gear operations during flight instructor practical tests.

Develop scenario based questions applicable to landing gear system malfunctions.

Test flight instructor “student error” intervention associated with landings and landing gear operations.


Flight instructor student solo responsibilities1
Flight Instructor / Student SOLO Responsibilities PROGRAM

In order to solo, a student must be able to:

  • Make competent go / no-go decisions for every flight

  • Determine the location of all other traffic while in the pattern

  • Establish and maintain a stabilized approach

  • Determine wind direction and make proper control inputs

  • Manage energy so landings occur at the touchdown point

  • Land with and maintain proper pitch attitude

  • Keep the longitudinal axis parallel to and over the centerline

  • Keep the centerline between the main wheels during landing

  • Correctly respond to any abnormality or emergency

  • Communicate properly & effectively with other traffic or ATC


Identify training deficiencies
Identify Training Deficiencies PROGRAM

“The eye can’t see what the mind does not know”

De-brief all Applicantsand theirRecommendingFlight InstructorsregardingTraining Deficiencies


Opportunities for improvement1
Opportunities for Improvement PROGRAM

Only 25 % of practical tests conducted by Orlando FSDO DPEs are failed due to unsatisfactory landing tasks

Discontinuity

Strictly apply PTS, “Solo Checklist”, and Airplane Flying Handbook guidelines


Risk management a definition
Risk Management: A Definition PROGRAM

The part of the decision-making process that relies on

  • Situational awareness

  • Problem recognition, and

  • Good judgment

    to reduce risks associated with each flight.


Teaching risk management
Teaching Risk Management PROGRAM

  • Identifying hazards

  • Assessing risk

  • Understanding its time-critical nature

  • Including risk-management controlsin training


Teaching judgment
Teaching Judgment PROGRAM

We’re trying to answer the enduring questions:

  • “Can you teach judgment?”

  • “If yes, how?”


Risk management
Risk Management PROGRAM

Before you make decisions, you must:

1. Identify risk factors (hazards)

2. Assess their likelihood

3. Evaluate their severity


Defining terms hazard
Defining Terms: Hazard PROGRAM

  • A present condition, event, object, or circumstance that could lead to or contribute to an unplanned or undesired event such as an accident.

  • Is it a source of danger?


Defining terms risk
Defining Terms: Risk PROGRAM

The future impact of a hazard that is not controlled or eliminated.

1. Future uncertainty created by the hazard.

2. If it involves skill sets, the same situation may yield different risks.

3. Could also be described as the “degree of uncertainty.”


Types of risk
Types of Risk PROGRAM

  • Total Risk: The sum of identified and unidentified risks.

  • Identified Risk: Risk that has been determined.

  • Unidentified Risk: Often identified only after an accident.

  • Unacceptable Risk: Can’t be tolerated. Must be eliminated or controlled.

  • Acceptable Risk: Identified but managed.

  • Residual Risk: Remains after mitigation attempts.


Risk management1
Risk Management PROGRAM

  • The method used to control, eliminate, or reduce hazards.

  • Unique to each individual based on skills, knowledge, training, and experience.

  • A decision-making process designed to systematically identify hazards, assess risk, and determine the best course of action.


Risk assessment
Risk Assessment PROGRAM

3 SM visibility—is it a risk?

  • For a student pilot?

  • 100 hr VFR-only private pilot?

  • 500 hr IFR pilot flying in the mountains

  • 1,000 hr IFR pilot with 5 hr experience in a glass cockpit?

  • 1,500 hr ATP pilot flying in busy airspace?

Photo AOPA Gallery


A simple test
A Simple Test PROGRAM

Ask three basic questions:

  • Is it legal?

  • Is it safe?

  • Does it make sense?


Fits website
FITS Website PROGRAM



Faasteam cfi workshop 5
FAASTeam CFI Workshop #5 PROGRAM

Risk Management

Questions?

Comments?

Ideas?

Quiz time


Risk management question 1
Risk Management Question #1 PROGRAM

Which of the following are hazardous attitudes?

a) Tormenter

b) Macho

c) Recluse

d) Quarrelsome


Risk management question 2
Risk Management Question #2 PROGRAM

Effective workload management ensures that essential operations are accomplished by planning, prioritizing, and sequencing tasks.

True or False?


Risk management question 3
Risk Management Question #3 PROGRAM

Is it a “Hazard” or a “Risk” that is a present condition, event, object, or circumstance that could lead to or contribute to an unplanned or undesired event such as an accident?


Risk management question 4
Risk Management Question #4 PROGRAM

An excellent tool in making good aeronautical decisions is the D.E.C.I.D.E model. What are the six attributes of the model?

  • Detect, Estimate, Choose, Identify, Do, Evaluate

  • Drop, Evacuate, Criticize, Indemnify, Decimate, Exacerbate

  • Determine, Eliminate, Choose, Initiate, Divert, Evacuate

  • None of the above

    Answers follow ~


Risk management question 11
Risk Management Question #1 PROGRAM

Which of the following are hazardous attitudes?

a) Tormenter

b) Macho

c) Recluse

d) Quarrelsome

Answer ~

b) Macho – Pilot’s Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge


Risk management question 21
Risk Management Question #2 PROGRAM

Effective workload management ensures that essential operations are accomplished by planning, prioritizing, and sequencing tasks.

True or False?

Answer ~

True – Pilot’s Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge


Risk management question 31
Risk Management Question #3 PROGRAM

Is it a “Hazard” or a “Risk” that is a present condition, event, object, or circumstance that could lead to or contribute to an unplanned or undesired event such as an accident?

Answer ~

“Hazard” – Risk Management Handbook


Risk management question 41
Risk Management Question #4 PROGRAM

An excellent tool in making good aeronautical decisions is the D.E.C.I.D.E model. What are the six attributes of the model?

Detect, Estimate, Choose, Identify, Do, Evaluate

Drop, Evacuate, Criticize, Indemnify, Decimate, Exacerbate

Determine, Eliminate, Choose, Initiate, Divert, Evacuate

None of the above

Answer ~

a) Detect, Estimate, Choose, Identify, Do, Evaluate


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