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Science 10 - Ecosystems. Ecosystem – includes all the organisms in an area that interact with each other and with their non-living environment. ex. Ocean Ecosystem Desert Rain Forest. Factors Affecting Ecosystems 1) Biotic Factors – living things. ex. Organisms.

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Science 10 - Ecosystems

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Science 10 - Ecosystems


Ecosystem – includes all the organisms in an area that interact with each other and with their non-living environment.

ex. Ocean Ecosystem

Desert

Rain Forest


Factors Affecting Ecosystems

1) Biotic Factors – living things.

ex. Organisms


2. Abiotic Factors – non-living

eg. Sunlight, wind, temperature, etc.


Biome – a large geographic area with a characteristic climate (ex. tropical rain forest).

Biosphere – 3 regions on earth in which all life exists.

a. Lithosphere – solid portion of earth’s surface.


b. Hydrosphere – layer of water which covers ¾ of earth’s surface.


c. Atmosphere – mass of air surrounding the earth.


Cycles of Life

  • All life requires nutrients and nutrients are continuously recycled…if they were not, they would become used up and life on Earth would cease to exist.


Carbon Cycle

  • Photosynthesis and cellular respiration make up the stages of the carbon cycle.

  • Carbon is absorbed by plants (as CO2) which then release O2 back into the atmosphere. This CO2 is converted into chemical energy [carbohydrates (sugars  starches)].

  • Animals eat the plants and these sugars/starches are used to provide energy. The product released back to the atmosphere is CO2 and the cycle is complete.

  • Carbon is still present in the bodies of plants and animals and will be recycled by decomposers, which also use O2 and return Carbon into the atmosphere in the form of CO2.


  • This cycle has become unbalanced due to the burning of fossil fuels.

  • During the Carboniferous Period (a. 300mya) large amounts of Carbon (in the tissues of plant matter) was trapped under ground.

  • Because of lack of oxygen and tremendous pressure, the plant matter was compressed into fossil fuels (coal, natural gas, and oil)

  • Burning these for energy releases CO2 into the atmosphere; too much for plants to use…causing an unbalanced C-cycle.

  • Large amounts of the carbon cycle takes place in Earth’s oceans but if the temperature of the oceans increases, more CO2 will escape back into the atmosphere (increase in temp. = decrease in solubility of a gas = CO2).


Nitrogen Cycle

  • Plants use N, P, & K for growth and development (these are the main ingredients in fertilizers).

  • Nitrogen gas makes up about 80% of Earth’s atmosphere but most organisms cannot absorb nitrogen directly.

    • Nitrogen fixation – is when nitrogen gas is converted into compounds (NH4+ & NO3-) that can be used by plants. Animals get Nitrogen by eating the plants.


  • Nitrogen fixing bacteria – are some of the few species that convert nitrogen into useable compounds

  • Nitrogen in these compounds will pass through the plants to the animals then to the soil and water through wastes and dead organisms

  • These compounds can reenter plants before going back to the atmosphere, creating a cycle within a cycle

  • Decomposers (bacteria) will break down the wastes/dead organisms and produce Ammonia which is converted back into Nitrates for use by the plants by Nitrifying bacteria.

    • This process is called nitrification. Denitrifying bacteria – convert nitrates in the soil or water back into nitrogen gas = denitrification.


    • This cycle can also be altered by humans. E.g. Adding too much fertilizers to soils causes root damage, stunts growth, and increases soil acidity.

    • The build up of nitrogen and other nutrients in aquatic ecosystems is called eutrophication – this increases plant growth at the water’s surface, not allowing sunlight to get to deeper waters and therefore “strangles” plants and animals because photosynthesis cannot take place in the deeper waters.


    Water Cycle

    Assignment: Define the following.

    • Evaporation

    • Transpiration

    • Condensation

    • Precipitation

    • Surface Runoff

    • Percolation

    • Ground Water

    • Water Table

    • Respiration


    How Energy is Transferred in an Ecosystem

    1. Producers (Autotrophs) – green plants that convert radiant energy into chemical energy (photosynthesis).


    2. Consumers (Heterotrophs) – consume other organisms.

    a) Primary Consumer (Herbivore) – animals that eat plants.


    b) Secondary Consumer (Carnivore) – animals that feed on plant eaters.


    c) Decomposers – organisms (generally fungus and bacteria) that obtain energy from breaking down remains or wastes of other organisms.

    Green plants produce more energy per unit of land area and only a portion of this energy is passed on to consumers that eat plants.

    Thus animals and animal products contain less energy than plants on the same amount of land.


    Feeding Levels

    - Food chains are made up of several feeding (energy) levels we call Trophic Levels.


    ProducerLeaves1stTrophic Level

    Primary ConsumerCaterpillar2ndTrophic Level

    Herbivore

    Secondary ConsumerRobin3rdTrophic Level

    Carnivore

    Tertiary ConsumerEagle 4thTrophic Level

    Top Carnivore

    Quaternary …Detritivores and Decomposers


     only 5-20% of energy is passed from one trophic level to another.

    • Most of the usable energy at each level is converted to thermal (heat) energy and waste matter.

    • Energy remains in the tissues of dead organisms which is used by detritivores and scavengers.


    Detritivores – feed on bodies of smaller dead animals. Dead plant matter, and animal dung.

    ex. Crabs, earthworms, wood beetles, ants


    Decomposers – bacteria and fungi which break down the cells and extract the last remaining energy.

    Maggots

    Saprobes


    FOOD CHAIN - an autotroph is producer is eaten by a primary

    consumer and its food energy is transferred to a secondary

    consumer who is gobbled up by a tertiary consumer and

    eventually its energy is transferred to the top consumer of this

    food chain. This is only a small part of a food web within the

    ecosystem. P. 829

    ** arrows go from food to eater (don’t draw animal pictures.)

    eg. shrub  rabbits  cougar

    BIOLOGICAL MAGNIFICATION = increasing amounts of toxins like

    DDT or mercury as you follow a food chain from producer to top consumer.

    Video Energy Flow in the Ecosystem


    FOOD CHAIN - an autotroph or producer is eaten by a primary

    consumer and its food energy is transferred to a secondary

    consumer who is gobbled up by a tertiary consumer and

    eventually its energy is transferred to the top consumer of this

    food chain. This is only a small part of a food web within the

    ecosystem. P. 829

    ** arrows go from food to eater (don’t draw animal pictures.)

    eg. shrub  rabbits  cougar

    BIOLOGICAL MAGNIFICATION = increasing amounts of toxins like

    DDT or mercury as you follow a food chain from producer to top consumer.

    Video Energy Flow in the Ecosystem


    FOOD CHAIN - an autotroph or producer is eaten by a primary

    consumer and its food energy is transferred to a secondary

    consumer who is gobbled up by a tertiary consumer and

    eventually its energy is transferred to the top consumer of this

    food chain. This is only a small part of a food web within the

    ecosystem. P. 829

    ** arrows go from food to eater (don’t draw animal pictures.)

    eg. shrub  rabbits  cougar

    BIOLOGICAL MAGNIFICATION = increasing amounts of toxins like

    DDT or mercury as you follow a food chain from producer to top consumer.

    Video Energy Flow in the Ecosystem


    FOOD CHAIN - an autotroph is producer is eaten by a primary

    consumer and its food energy is transferred to a secondary

    consumer who is gobbled up by a tertiary consumer and

    eventually its energy is transferred to the top consumer of this

    food chain. This is only a small part of a food web within the

    ecosystem. P. 829

    ** arrows go from food to eater (don’t draw animal pictures.)

    eg. shrub  rabbits  cougar

    BIOLOGICAL MAGNIFICATION = increasing amounts of toxins like

    DDT or mercury as you follow a food chain from producer to top consumer.

    Video Energy Flow in the Ecosystem


    FOOD CHAIN - an autotroph is producer is eaten by a primary

    consumer and its food energy is transferred to a secondary

    consumer who is gobbled up by a tertiary consumer and

    eventually its energy is transferred to the top consumer of this

    food chain. This is only a small part of a food web within the

    ecosystem.

    ** arrows go from food to eater (don’t draw animal pictures.)

    eg. shrub  rabbits  cougar

    BIOLOGICAL MAGNIFICATION = increasing amounts of toxins like

    DDT or mercury as you follow a food chain from producer to top consumer.

    Video Energy Flow in the Ecosystem


    Food Web


    FOOD CHAIN - an autotroph is producer is eaten by a primary

    consumer and its food energy is transferred to a secondary

    consumer who is gobbled up by a tertiary consumer and

    eventually its energy is transferred to the top consumer of this

    food chain. This is only a small part of a food web within the

    ecosystem.

    ** arrows go from food to eater (don’t draw animal pictures.)

    eg. shrub  rabbits  cougar

    BIOLOGICAL MAGNIFICATION = increasing amounts of toxins like

    DDT or mercury as you follow a food chain from producer to top consumer.

    Video Energy Flow in the Ecosystem


    BIOLOGICAL MAGNIFICATION = increasing amounts of toxins like DDT or mercury as you follow a food chain from producer to top consumer


    ENERGY PYRAMIDS

    -the base if the pyramid is the first trophic level (always a producer)

    -the trophic levels above continue to be numbered

    upwards (Handout has ______ trophic levels)

    -there are energy pyramids which represent the transfers of

    energy in a food chain and there are pyramids of biomass.

    (=2 kinds of pyramids)

    -biomass = the mass of all organisms in a trophic level that

    compete for the same food.

    -competition = organisms can compete in the communities for

    food, habitat space, and other resources. No two populations

    can occupy the same niche (ones got to go) = competitive

    exclusion principle


    PYRAMIDS

    -the base of the pyramid is the first trophic level (always a producer)

    -the trophic levels above continue to be numbered

    upwards (Handout has ______ trophic levels)

    -there are energy pyramids which represent the transfers of

    energy in a food chain and there are pyramids of biomass.

    (=2 kinds of pyramids)

    -biomass = the mass of all organisms in a trophic level that

    compete for the same food.

    -competition = organisms can compete in the communities for

    food, habitat space, and other resources. No two populations

    can occupy the same niche (ones got to go) = competitive

    exclusion principle


    PYRAMIDS

    -the base if the pyramid is the first trophic level (always a producer)

    -the trophic levels above continue to be numbered

    upwards (Handout has ______ trophic levels)

    -there are energy pyramids which represent the transfers of

    energy in a food chain and there are pyramids of biomass.

    (=2 kinds of pyramids)

    -biomass = the mass of all organisms in a trophic level that

    compete for the same food.

    -competition = organisms can compete in the communities for

    food, habitat space, and other resources. No two populations

    can occupy the same niche (ones got to go) = competitive

    exclusion principle


    PYRAMIDS

    -the base if the pyramid is the first trophic level (always a producer)

    -the trophic levels above continue to be numbered

    upwards (Handout has ______ trophic levels)

    -there are energy pyramids which represent the transfers of

    energy in a food chain . There are pyramids of biomass & numbers.

    (=2 kinds of pyramids)

    -biomass = the mass of all organisms in a trophic level that

    compete for the same food.

    -competition = organisms can compete in the communities for

    food, habitat space, and other resources. No two populations

    can occupy the same niche (ones got to go) = competitive

    exclusion principle


    What two ecosystems in the world have the greatest biomass ?


    ENERGY PYRAMIDS

    -the base if the pyramid is the first trophic level (always a producer)

    -the trophic levels above continue to be numbered

    upwards (Handout has ______ trophic levels)

    -there are energy pyramids which represent the transfers of

    energy in a food chain . There are pyramids of biomass & numbers.

    (=3 kinds of pyramids)

    -biomass = the mass of all organisms in a trophic level that

    compete for the same food.

    -competition = organisms can compete in the communities for

    food, habitat space, and other resources. No two populations

    can occupy the same niche (ones got to go) = competitive

    exclusion principle


    ENERGY PYRAMIDS

    -the base if the pyramid is the first trophic level (always a producer)

    -the trophic levels above continue to be numbered

    upwards (Handout has ______ trophic levels)

    -there are energy pyramids which represent the transfers of

    energy in a food chain . There are pyramids of biomass & numbers.

    (=3 kinds of pyramids)

    -biomass = the mass of all organisms in a trophic level that

    compete for the same food.

    -competition = organisms can compete in the communities for

    food, habitat space, and other resources. No two populations

    can occupy the same niche (ones got to go) = competitive

    exclusion principle


    ENERGY PYRAMIDS

    -the base if the pyramid is the first trophic level (always a producer)

    -the trophic levels above continue to be numbered

    upwards (Handout has ______ trophic levels)

    -there are energy pyramids which represent the transfers of

    energy in a food chain . There are pyramids of biomass and numbers.

    (=3 kinds of pyramids)

    -biomass = the mass of all organisms in a trophic level that

    compete for the same food.

    -competition = organisms can compete in the communities for

    food, habitat space, and other resources. No two populations

    can occupy the same niche (ones got to go) = competitive

    exclusion principle


    Releases toxins

    Into the soil to

    Prevent other

    plant growth =

    competition


    ENERGY PYRAMIDS

    -the base if the pyramid is the first trophic level (always a producer)

    -the trophic levels above continue to be numbered

    upwards (Handout has ______ trophic levels)

    -there are energy pyramids which represent the transfers of

    energy in a food chain . There are pyramids of biomass and numbers.

    (=3 kinds of pyramids)

    -biomass = the mass of all organisms in a trophic level that

    compete for the same food.

    -competition = organisms can compete in the communities for

    food, habitat space, and other resources. No two populations

    can occupy the same niche (one’s got to go) = competitive

    exclusion principle


    ENERGY/BIOMASS PYRAMID


    ENERGY/BIOMASS PYRAMID

    10% energy passed to next level


    ENERGY/BIOMASS PYRAMID

    Energy and

    Biomass decrease

    As you go up

    A food

    chain

    10% energy passed to next level


    ENERGY/BIOMASS PYRAMID

    Energy and

    Biomass decrease

    As you go up

    A food

    chain

    10% energy passed to next level

    so it can support less biomass


    ENERGY/BIOMASS PYRAMID

    Biomagnification of

    DDT or mercury are

    NOT illustrated by

    this pyramid, because they increase as you go

    up the food chain

    Energy and

    Biomass decrease

    As you go up

    A food

    chain

    10% energy passed to next level

    so it can support less biomass


    Pyramid of Numbers

    • Counting organisms in an ecosystem.

    • This type of pyramid does not take into account the sizes of individual organisms.

    • For example many insects can feed off of one tree, so the bottom of the pyramid could be very small.


    Pyramid of Biomass

    • Measured in grams per square meter.

    • Shows biomass decreases from each trophic level.

    • Disadvantage: the biomass of the herbivores may be much greater then the producers causing the pyramid to look inverted.


    Pyramid of Energy

    • Measures the total chemical energy that flows through each trophic level.

    • The best pyramid because it eliminates the exceptions in the other pyramids.

    • There is always less energy available for each successive trophic level.


    Activity: Questions

    • Give an example of an organism in the second trophic level of an ecosystem.

    • Why are there rarely more than four links in a food chain?

    • What is a pyramid of numbers?

    • Which would you expect to have the greatest biomass, a population of rabbits or a population of foxes living in the same ecosystem? Explain.


    • Biological Communities:

    • SYMBIOTIC RELATIONSHIPS = close

    • living associations of different species (members of different

    • species do not interbreed) in which one organism benefits from

    • the relationship. There are three kinds:

    • mutualism = a relationship in which organisms both benefits

    • commensalism = one organism benefits but the other is not

    • helped nor harmed

    • parasitism = one organism benefits while the other harmed

    • SASKATCHEWAN EXAMPLES

    • Nodule bacteria provide nitrogen in a form plants can use,

    • while the legume plant provides protection/home for bacteria.

    • This is .

    • 2. Intestinal worms absorb nutrients from deer, and reproduces

    • inside. With heavy infestations the deer can be a

    • weakened target for predators. It is .

    • 3.


    • Biological Communities:

    • SYMBIOTIC RELATIONSHIPS = close

    • living associations of different species (members of different

    • species do not interbreed) in which one organism benefits from

    • the relationship. There are three kinds:

    • mutualism = a relationship in which organisms both benefits

    • commensalism = one organism benefits but the other is not

    • helped nor harmed

    • parasitism = one organism benefits while the other harmed

    • SASKATCHEWAN EXAMPLES

    • Nodule bacteria provide nitrogen in a form plants can use,

    • while the legume plant provides protection/home for bacteria.

    • This is .

    • 2. Intestinal worms absorb nutrients from deer, and reproduces

    • inside. With heavy infestations the deer can be a

    • weakened target for predators. It is .

    • 3.


    • A community is all the populations of organisms living together and potentially interacting in a particular area

    • Communities are made up of many different kinds of relationships: producer/consumer, predator/prey, and symbiotic relationships


    Predator – living things that catch, kill, and eat other living things.

    Prey – The organisms that are eaten.

    - predation plays an important role in shaping communities.

    - help to control the size of prey populations.

    - maintain diversity in an ecosystem.


    • Biological Communities:

    • SYMBIOTIC RELATIONSHIPS = close

    • living associations of different species (members of different

    • species do not interbreed) in which one organism benefits from

    • the relationship. There are three kinds:

    • mutualism = a relationship in which organisms both benefits

    • commensalism = one organism benefits but the other is not

    • helped nor harmed

    • parasitism = one organism benefits while the other harmed

    • SASKATCHEWAN EXAMPLES

    • Nodule bacteria provide nitrogen in a form plants can use,

    • while the legume plant provides protection/home for bacteria.

    • This is .

    • 2. Intestinal worms absorb nutrients from deer, and reproduces

    • inside. With heavy infestations the deer can be a

    • weakened target for predators. It is .

    • 3.


    • Biological Communities:

    • SYMBIOTIC RELATIONSHIPS = close

    • living associations of different species (members of different

    • species do not interbreed) in which one organism benefits from

    • the relationship. There are three kinds:

    • mutualism = a relationship in which organisms both benefits

    • commensalism = one organism benefits but the other is not

    • helped nor harmed

    • parasitism = one organism benefits while the other harmed

    • SASKATCHEWAN EXAMPLES

    • Nodule bacteria provide nitrogen in a form plants can use,

    • while the legume plant provides protection/home for bacteria.

    • This is .

    • 2. Intestinal worms absorb nutrients from deer, and reproduces

    • inside. With heavy infestations the deer can be a

    • weakened target for predators. It is .

    • 3.


    • Biological Communities:

    • SYMBIOTIC RELATIONSHIPS = close

    • living associations of different species (members of different

    • species do not interbreed) in which one organism benefits from

    • the relationship. There are three kinds:

    • mutualism = a relationship in which organisms both benefits

    • commensalism = one organism benefits but the other is not

    • helped nor harmed

    • parasitism = one organism benefits while the other harmed

    • SASKATCHEWAN EXAMPLES

    • Nodule bacteria provide nitrogen in a form plants can use,

    • while the legume plant provides protection/home for bacteria.

    • This is .

    • 2. Intestinal worms absorb nutrients from deer, and reproduces

    • inside. With heavy infestations the deer can be a

    • weakened target for predators. It is .

    • 3.


    • Biological Communities:

    • SYMBIOTIC RELATIONSHIPS = close

    • living associations of different species (members of different

    • species do not interbreed) in which one organism benefits from

    • the relationship. There are three kinds:

    • mutualism = a relationship in which organisms both benefits

    • commensalism = one organism benefits but the other is not

    • helped nor harmed

    • 3.parasitism = one organism benefits while the other is harmed

    • SASKATCHEWAN EXAMPLES

    • Nodule bacteria provide nitrogen in a form plants can use,

    • while the legume plant provides protection/home for bacteria.

    • This is .

    • 2. Intestinal worms absorb nutrients from deer, and reproduces

    • inside. With heavy infestations the deer can be a

    • weakened target for predators. It is .

    • 3.


    • Biological Communities:

    • SYMBIOTIC RELATIONSHIPS = close

    • living associations of different species (members of different

    • species do not interbreed) in which one organism benefits from

    • the relationship. There are three kinds:

    • mutualism = a relationship in which organisms both benefits

    • commensalism = one organism benefits but the other is not

    • helped nor harmed

    • 3.parasitism = one organism benefits while the other harmed

    • SASKATCHEWAN EXAMPLES

    • Nodule bacteria provide nitrogen in a form plants can use,

    • while the legume plant provides protection/home for bacteria.

    • This is .

    • 2. Intestinal worms absorb nutrients from deer, and reproduces

    • inside. With heavy infestations the deer can be a

    • weakened target for predators. It is .

    • 3.


    • Biological Communities:

    • SYMBIOTIC RELATIONSHIPS = close

    • living associations of different species (members of different

    • species do not interbreed) in which one organism benefits from

    • the relationship. There are three kinds:

    • mutualism = a relationship in which organisms both benefits

    • commensalism = one organism benefits but the other is not

    • helped nor harmed

    • 3. parasitism = one organism benefits while the other harmed

    • SASKATCHEWAN EXAMPLES

    • Nodule bacteria provide nitrogen in a form plants can use,

    • while the legume plant provides protection/home for bacteria.

    • This is mutualism .

    • 2. Intestinal worms absorb nutrients from deer, and reproduces

    • inside. With heavy infestations the deer can be a

    • weakened target for predators. It is .

    • 3.


    • Biological Communities:

    • SYMBIOTIC RELATIONSHIPS = close living associations of

    • different species (members of different species do not interbreed)

    • in which one organism benefits from the relationship. Three kinds:

    • mutualism = a relationship in which organisms both benefits

    • commensalism = one organism benefits but the other is not

    • helped nor harmed

    • 3.parasitism = one organism benefits while the other harmed

    • SASKATCHEWAN EXAMPLES

    • Nodule bacteria provide nitrogen in a form plants can use,

    • while the legume plant provides protection/home for bacteria.

    • This is mutualism .

    • 2. Intestinal worms absorb nutrients from deer, and reproduces

    • inside. With heavy infestations the deer can be a

    • weakened target for predators. It is .

    • 3.


    • Biological Communities:

    • SYMBIOTIC RELATIONSHIPS = close living associations of different

    • species (members of different species do not interbreed) in

    • which one organism benefits from the relationship. Three kinds:

    • mutualism = a relationship in which organisms both benefits

    • commensalism = one organism benefits but the other is not

    • helped nor harmed

    • 3. parasitism = one organism benefits while the other harmed

    • SASKATCHEWAN EXAMPLES

    • Nodule bacteria provide nitrogen in a form plants can use,

    • while the legume plant provides protection/home for bacteria.

    • This is mutualism .

    • 2. Intestinal worms absorb nutrients from deer, and reproduces

    • inside. With heavy infestations the deer can be a

    • weakened target for predators. It is parasitism .

    • 3.


    • Biological Communities:

    • SYMBIOTIC RELATIONSHIPS = close living associations of different

    • species (members of different species do not interbreed) in

    • which one organism benefits from the relationship. Three kinds:

    • mutualism = a relationship in which organisms both benefits

    • commensalism = one organism benefits but the other is not

    • helped nor harmed

    • 3.parasitism = one organism benefits while the other harmed

    • SASKATCHEWAN EXAMPLES

    • Nodule bacteria provide nitrogen in a form plants can use,

    • while the legume plant provides protection/home for bacteria.

    • This is mutualism .

    • 2. Intestinal worms absorb nutrients from deer, and reproduces

    • inside. With heavy infestations the deer can be a

    • weakened target for predators. It is parasitism .

    • 3.


    • Biological Communities:

    • SYMBIOTIC RELATIONSHIPS = close living associations of different

    • species (members of different species do not interbreed) in

    • which one organism benefits from the relationship. Three kinds:

    • mutualism = a relationship in which organisms both benefits

    • commensalism = one organism benefits but the other is nothelped nor harmed

    • parasitism = one organism benefits while the other harmed

    • SASKATCHEWAN EXAMPLES

    • Nodule bacteria provide nitrogen in a form plants can use, while the legume plant provides protection/home for bacteria.

    • This is mutualism .

    • 2. Intestinal worms absorb nutrients from deer, and reproduces

    • inside. With heavy infestations the deer can be a

    • weakened target for predators. It is parasitism .

    • 3. Vultures do not affect the wolves that ate this deer.

    • This is _____________________.


    • Biological Communities:

    • SYMBIOTIC RELATIONSHIPS = close living associations of different

    • species (members of different species do not interbreed) in

    • which one organism benefits from the relationship. Three kinds:

    • mutualism = a relationship in which organisms both benefits

    • commensalism = one organism benefits but the other is nothelped nor harmed

    • parasitism = one organism benefits while the other harmed

    • SASKATCHEWAN EXAMPLES

    • Nodule bacteria provide nitrogen in a form plants can use, while the legume plant provides protection/home for bacteria.

    • This is mutualism .

    • 2. Intestinal worms absorb nutrients from deer, and reproduces

    • inside. With heavy infestations the deer can be a

    • weakened target for predators. It is parasitism .

    • 3. Vultures do not affect the wolves that ate this deer.

    • This is _______commensalism__.


    Natural Communities Change Over Time (Sask.)

    Succession = the long process of ecological change of communities.

    eg. #1. PRIMARY SUCCESSION: (P.836, P. 839)

    bare rock

    lichens (break it down to form soil)

    weeds = pioneer plants

    grasses

    meadow ecosystem (this is what end climax community would be in SW Sask.)

    brush (brushes & low trees)

    forest ( aspen trees)

    Coniferous forest (evergreens, spruce , fir)

    Climax Community = the end of succession where the community can no

    longer change due to limits of climate and soil. P.836, p.853, p.839

    *** succession can end anyplace in this chain above

    * Animal populations change accordingly.


    Natural Communities Change Over Time (Sask.)

    Succession = the long process of ecological change of communities.

    eg. #1. PRIMARY SUCCESSION: (P.836, P. 839)

    bare rock

    lichens (break it down to form soil)

    weeds = pioneer plants

    grasses

    meadow ecosystem (this is what end climax community would be in SW Sask.)

    brush (brushes & low trees)

    forest ( aspen trees)

    Coniferous forest (evergreens, spruce , fir)

    Climax Community = the end of succession where the community can no

    longer change due to limits of climate and soil. P.836, p.853, p.839

    *** succession can end anyplace in this chain above

    * Animal populations change accordingly.


    Natural Communities Change Over Time (Sask.)

    Succession = the long process of ecological change of communities.

    eg. #1. PRIMARY SUCCESSION:

    bare rock

    lichens (break it down to form soil)

    weeds = pioneer plants

    grasses

    meadow ecosystem (this is what end climax community would be in SW Sask.)

    brush (brushes & low trees)

    forest ( aspen trees)

    Coniferous forest (evergreens, spruce , fir)

    Climax Community = the end of succession where the community can no

    longer change due to limits of climate and soil. P.836, p.853, p.839

    *** succession can end anyplace in this chain above

    * Animal populations change accordingly.


    Natural Communities Change Over Time (Sask.)

    Succession = the long process of ecological change of communities.

    eg. #1. PRIMARY SUCCESSION:

    bare rock

    lichens (break it down to form soil)

    weeds = pioneer plants

    grasses

    meadow ecosystem (this is what end climax community would be in SW Sask.)

    brush (brushes & low trees)

    forest ( aspen trees)

    Coniferous forest (evergreens, spruce , fir)

    Climax Community = the end of succession where the community can no

    longer change due to limits of climate and soil. P.836, p.853, p.839

    *** succession can end anyplace in this chain above

    * Animal populations change accordingly.


    Natural Communities Change Over Time (Sask.)

    Succession = the long process of ecological change of communities.

    eg. #1. PRIMARY SUCCESSION:

    bare rock

    lichens (break it down to form soil)

    weeds = pioneer plants

    grasses

    meadow ecosystem (this is what end climax community would be in SW Sask.)

    brush (brushes & low trees)

    forest ( aspen trees)

    Coniferous forest (evergreens, spruce , fir)

    Climax Community = the end of succession where the community can no

    longer change due to limits of climate and soil. P.836, p.853, p.839

    *** succession can end anyplace in this chain above

    * Animal populations change accordingly.


    Natural Communities Change Over Time (Sask.)

    Succession = the long process of ecological change of communities.

    eg. #1. PRIMARY SUCCESSION:

    bare rock

    lichens (break it down to form soil)

    weeds = pioneer plants

    grasses

    meadow ecosystem (this is what end climax community would be in SW Sask.)

    brush (brushes & low trees)

    forest ( aspen trees)

    Coniferous forest (evergreens, spruce , fir)

    Climax Community = the end of succession where the community can no

    longer change due to limits of climate and soil. P.836, p.853, p.839

    *** succession can end anyplace in this chain above

    * Animal populations change accordingly.


    Natural Communities Change Over Time (Sask.)

    Succession = the long process of ecological change of communities.

    eg. #1. PRIMARY SUCCESSION:

    bare rock

    lichens (break it down to form soil)

    weeds = pioneer plants

    grasses

    meadow ecosystem (this is what end climax community would be in SW Sask.)

    brush (brushes & low trees)

    forest ( aspen trees)

    Coniferous forest (evergreens, spruce , fir)

    Climax Community = the end of succession where the community can no

    longer change due to limits of climate and soil. P.836, p.853, p.839

    *** succession can end anyplace in this chain above

    * Animal populations change accordingly.


    Natural Communities Change Over Time (Sask.)

    Succession = the long process of ecological change of communities.

    eg. #1. PRIMARY SUCCESSION:

    bare rock

    lichens (break it down to form soil)

    weeds = pioneer plants

    grasses

    meadow ecosystem (this is what end climax community would be in SW Sask.)

    brush (brushes & low trees)

    forest ( aspen trees)

    Coniferous forest (evergreens, spruce , fir)

    Climax Community = the end of succession where the community can no

    longer change due to limits of climate and soil. P.836, p.853, p.839

    *** succession can end anyplace in this chain above

    * Animal populations change accordingly.


    Natural Communities Change Over Time (Sask.)

    Succession = the long process of ecological change of communities.

    eg. #1. PRIMARY SUCCESSION:

    bare rock

    lichens (break it down to form soil)

    weeds = pioneer plants

    grasses

    meadow ecosystem (this is what end climax community would be in SW Sask.)

    brush (brushes & low trees)

    forest ( aspen trees)

    Coniferous forest (evergreens, spruce , fir)

    Climax Community = the end of succession where the community can no

    longer change due to limits of climate and soil. P.836, p.853, p.839

    *** succession can end anyplace in this chain above

    * Animal populations change accordingly.


    Natural Communities Change Over Time (Sask.)

    Succession = the long process of ecological change of communities.

    eg. #1. PRIMARY SUCCESSION:

    bare rock

    lichens (break it down to form soil)

    weeds = pioneer plants

    grasses

    meadow ecosystem (this is what end climax community would be in SW Sask.)

    brush (brushes & low trees)

    forest ( aspen/poplar trees)

    Coniferous forest (evergreens, spruce , fir)

    Climax Community = the end of succession where the community can no

    longer change due to limits of climate and soil. P.836, p.853, p.839

    *** succession can end anyplace in this chain above

    * Animal populations change accordingly.


    Natural Communities Change Over Time (Sask.)

    Succession = the long process of ecological change of communities.

    eg. #1. PRIMARY SUCCESSION:

    bare rock

    lichens (break it down to form soil)

    weeds = pioneer plants

    grasses

    meadow ecosystem (this is what end climax community would be in SW Sask.)

    brush (brushes & low trees)

    forest ( aspen/poplar trees)

    Coniferous forest (evergreens, spruce , fir)

    Climax Community = the end of succession where the community can no

    longer change due to limits of climate and soil. P.836, p.853, p.839

    *** succession can end anyplace in this chain above

    * Animal populations change accordingly.


    Natural Communities Change Over Time (Sask.)

    Succession = the long process of ecological change of communities.

    eg. #1. PRIMARY SUCCESSION:

    bare rock

    lichens (break it down to form soil)

    weeds = pioneer plants

    grasses

    meadow ecosystem (this is what end climax community would be in SW Sask.)

    brush (brushes & low trees)

    forest ( aspen/poplar trees)

    Coniferous forest (evergreens, spruce , fir)

    Climax Community = the end of succession where the community can no

    longer change due to limits of climate and soil. P.836, p.853, p.839

    *** succession can end anyplace in this chain above

    * Animal populations change accordingly.


    Natural Communities Change Over Time (Sask.)

    Succession = the long process of ecological change of communities.

    eg. #1. PRIMARY SUCCESSION:

    bare rock

    lichens (break it down to form soil)

    weeds = pioneer plants

    grasses

    meadow ecosystem (this is what end climax community would be in SW Sask.)

    brush (brushes & low trees)

    forest ( aspen/poplar trees)

    Coniferous forest (evergreens, spruce , fir)

    Climax Community = the end of succession where the community can no

    longer change due to limits of climate and soil. P.836, p.853, p.839

    *** succession can end anyplace in this chain above

    * Animal populations change accordingly.


    Natural Communities Change Over Time (Sask.)

    Succession = the long process of ecological change of communities.

    eg. #1. PRIMARY SUCCESSION:

    bare rock

    lichens (break it down to form soil)

    weeds = pioneer plants

    grasses

    meadow ecosystem (this is what end climax community would be in SW Sask.)

    brush (brushes & low trees)

    forest ( aspen/poplar trees)

    Coniferous forest (evergreens, spruce , fir)

    Climax Community = the end of succession where the community can no

    longer change due to limits of climate and soil. P.836, p.853, p.839

    *** succession can end anyplace in this chain above

    * Animal populations change accordingly.


    Secondary Succession(occurs after a forest fire, or a

    farmer clears land. It’s different from primary succession because

    it occurs where there used to be an established community)

    Eg. #2 pond

    silt settles on bottom P. 839

    marsh

    meadow

    brush

    Aspen/poplars

    Coniferous forest

    ***** succession ends when climate and soil limits the climax community


    Secondary Succession (occurs after a forest fire, or a

    farmer clears land. It’s different from primary succession because

    it occurs where there used to be an established community)

    Eg. #2 pond

    silt settles on bottom P. 839

    marsh

    meadow

    brush

    Aspen/poplars

    Coniferous forest

    ***** succession ends when climate and soil limits the climax community


    Secondary Succession (occurs after a forest fire, or a

    farmer clears land. It’s different from primary succession because

    it occurs where there used to be an established community)

    Eg. #2 pond

    silt settles on bottom P. 839

    marsh

    meadow

    brush

    Aspen/poplars

    Coniferous forest

    ***** succession ends when climate and soil limits the climax community


    Secondary Succession (occurs after a forest fire, or a

    farmer clears land. It’s different from primary succession because

    it occurs where there used to be an established community)

    Eg. #2 pond

    silt settles on bottom

    marsh

    meadow

    brush

    Aspen/poplars

    Coniferous forest

    ***** succession ends when climate and soil limits the climax community


    Secondary Succession (occurs after a forest fire, or a

    farmer clears land. It’s different from primary succession because

    it occurs where there used to be an established community)

    Eg. #2 pond

    silt settles on bottom P. 839

    marsh

    meadow

    brush

    Aspen/poplars

    Coniferous forest

    ***** succession ends when climate and soil limits the climax community


    Secondary Succession (occurs after a forest fire, or a

    farmer clears land. It’s different from primary succession because

    it occurs where there used to be an established community)

    Eg. #2 pond

    silt settles on bottom

    marsh

    meadow

    brush

    Aspen/poplars

    Coniferous forest

    ***** succession ends when climate and soil limits the climax community


    Secondary Succession (occurs after a forest fire, or a

    farmer clears land. It’s different from primary succession because

    it occurs where there used to be an established community)

    Eg. #2 pond

    silt settles on bottom

    marsh

    meadow

    brush

    Aspen/poplars

    Coniferous forest

    ***** succession ends when climate and soil limits the climax community


    Secondary Succession (occurs after a forest fire, or a

    farmer clears land. It’s different from primary succession because

    it occurs where there used to be an established community)

    Eg. #2 pond

    silt settles on bottom

    marsh

    meadow

    brush

    Aspen/poplars

    Coniferous forest

    ***** succession ends when climate and soil limits the climax community


    Secondary Succession (occurs after a forest fire, or a

    farmer clears land. It’s different from primary succession because

    it occurs where there used to be an established community)

    Eg. #2 pond

    silt settles on bottom

    marsh

    meadow

    brush

    Aspen/poplars

    Coniferous forest

    ***** succession ends when climate and soil limits the climax community


    Secondary Succession (occurs after a forest fire, or a

    farmer clears land. It’s different from primary succession because

    it occurs where there used to be an established community)

    Eg. #2 pond

    silt settles on bottom

    marsh

    meadow

    brush

    Aspen/poplars

    Coniferous forest

    ***** succession ends when climate and soil limits the climax community


    Populations

    Habitat – the place in an organisms life.

    Niche – the role an organism plays in an environment. (ex. The place it lives, the food it eats, the organisms that feed on it and interact with it, the amount of light and humidity required, etc.)

    Carrying Capacity – the largest population of a species that an environment can support.


    Four Factors that Limit Carrying Capacity

    • Materials and Energy – sun, water, carbon.

    • Food Chains – populations are limited by their food supply.

    • Competition – the demand for resources such as food, water, mates, and space.

      a) Intraspecific – among members of the same species.

      b) Interspecific – between different species.


    4. Density – dependant on size, environment, and way of life.

    Population Density – how many individuals can live in an area at one time.

    Density Dependant Factors – factors that increase in significance as a population grows (overcrowding).

    Density Independent Factors – factors that do not depend on the size of the population (forest fires).


    • Symbiotic relationship – an interaction between two or more species where one species lives in or on another species

    • There are 3 main types: parasitism, commensalisms, and mutualism


    • Parasitism (para = near; sitos = food) is a predator-prey relationship where one organism (the parasite) derives its food at the expense of its host

    • E.g. Tapeworms living inside larger animals absorbing nutrients from its host; mistletoe or rusts on plants; and lungworms in the air passages of white tailed deer

    Mistletoe on a tree

    Tape worms in a horse


    • Commensalism (com = together, mensa = table) is a relationship where one partner benefits without significantly affecting the other. Few cases of absolute commensalisms probably exist because it is unlikely that one of the partners will be completely unaffected

    • Commensal relationships sometimes involve one species obtaining food that is inadvertently exposed by another

    • E.g. Several kinds of birds feed on insects flushed out of the grass by grazing cattle

    Robin nest in a Hydrangea tree


    • Mutualism (mutualis = reciprocal) is a relationship that benefits both partners in the relationship.

    • E.g. Legume plants with their nitrogen-fixing bacteria; the interactions between flowering plants and their pollinators


    THE END


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