EDU 5900 REKA BENTUK PENYELIDIKAN. PENGUMPULAN DATA. OBJEKT I F. Memahami konsep pengumpulan data dalam penyelidikan. Mengetahui kaedah-kaedah pengumpulan data dalam penyelidikan.
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Data-collection techniques allow us to systematically collect information about our objects of study (people, objects, phenomena) and about the settings in which they occur.
In the collection of data we have to be systematic. If data are collected haphazardly, it will be difficult to answer our research questions in a conclusive way.
Develop standard written procedures for administering an instrument
Respect individuals and sites during data gathering (ethics)
Obtain permission to collect and use public documents
Train researchers to collect observational data
E.g.: information system data, census data, unpublished reports and publications in archives and libraries
OBSERVATION is a technique that involves systematically selecting, watching and recording behaviour and characteristics of living beings, objects or phenomena.
Observations of human behaviour can form part of any type of study, but as they are time consuming they are most often used in small-scale studies.
Observations can also be made on objects.
If observations are made using a defined scale they may be called measurements. Measurements usually require additional tools. For example, we use thermometers for measuring body temperature.
An INTERVIEW is a data-collection technique that involves oral questioning of respondents, either individually or as a group.
Answers to the questions posed during an interview can be recorded by writing them down (either during the interview itself or immediately after the interview) or by tape-recording the responses, or by a combination of both.
Interviews can be conducted with varying degrees of flexibility. The two extremes, high and low degree of flexibility
High degree of flexibility
When studying sensitive issues such as teenage pregnancy and abortions, the investigator may use a list of topics rather than fixed questions. These may, e.g., include how teenagers started sexual intercourse, the responsibility girls and their partners take to prevent pregnancy (if at all), and the actions they take in the event of unwanted pregnancies. The investigator should have an additional list of topics ready when the respondent falls silent, (e.g., when asked about abortion methods used, who made the decision and who paid). The sequence of topics should be determined by the flow of discussion. It is often possible to come back to a topic discussed earlier in a later stage of the interview.
Low degree of flexibility
Less flexible methods of interviewing are useful when the researcher is relatively knowledgeable about expected answers or when the number of respondents being interviewed is relatively large. Then questionnaires may be used with a fixed list of questions in a standard sequence, which have mainly fixed or pre-categorised answers.
Face - to - face interviews have a distinct advantage of enabling the researcher to establish rapport with potential participants and therefor gain their cooperation. These interviews yield highest response rates in survey research. They also allow the researcher to clarify ambiguous answers and when appropriate, seek follow-up information. Disadvantages include impractical when large samples are involved time consuming and expensive.(Leedy and Ormrod, 2001)
Telephone interviews are less time consuming and less expensive and the researcher has ready access to anyone on the planet who has a telephone. Disadvantages are that the response rate is not as high as the face-to- face interview but considerably higher than the mailed questionnaire. The sample may be biased to the extent that people without phones are part of the population about whom the researcher wants to draw inferences.
Computer Assisted Personal Interviewing (CAPI)
is a form of personal interviewing, but instead of completing a questionnaire, the interviewer brings along a laptop or hand-held computer to enter the information directly into the database. This method saves time involved in processing the data, as well as saving the interviewer from carrying around hundreds of questionnaires. However, this type of data collection method can be expensive to set up and requires that interviewers have computer and typing skills.
The main advantage of face to face interviews is that the researcher can adapt the questions as necessary, clarify doubts and ensure that the responses are properly understood by repeating or rephrasing the questions.
The disadvantages of the interview include cost and possibility of bias. It is very costly to conduct many interviews over large geographical areas as it may involve training interviewers, transportation and accommodation out of town. The very flexibility of an interview is also an opportunity for researcher bias to influence the data collected. Facial or verbal cues may influence the answers the participants give.
4. Administering written questionnaires
A WRITTEN QUESTIONNAIRE (also referred to as self-administered questionnaire) is a data collection tool in which written questions are presented that are to be answered by the respondents in written form.
can be sent to a large number of people and saves the researcher time and money. People are more truthful while responding to the questionnaires regarding controversial issues in particular due to the fact that their responses are anonymous. But they also have drawbacks. Majority of the people who receive questionnaires don't return them and those who do might not be representative of the originally selected sample.(Leedy and Ormrod, 2001)
Web Based Questionnaires
A new and inevitably growing methodology is the use of Internet based research. This would mean receiving an e-mail on which you would click on an address that would take you to a secure web-site to fill in a questionnaire. This type of research is often quicker and less detailed. Some disadvantages of this method include the exclusion of people who do not have a computer or are unable to access a computer. Also the validity of such surveys are in question as people might be in a hurry to complete it and so might not give accurate responses. (http://www.statcan.ca/english/edu/power/ch2/methods/methods.htm)
The Negative Side to Postal Questionnaires
The response rate is usually small which requires a second or even a third mailing. A further more important disadvantage of this method is that different participants may interpret the questions differently and certain questions can be completely misunderstood by many or all of the participants. To avoid this problem, questions would have to be simple
Personally Administered Questionnaires
Personally Administered Questionnaires
5. Focus group discussions (FGD)
A focus group discussion allows a group of 8 - 12 informants to freely discuss a certain subject with the guidance of a facilitator or reporter.
Anonymity of the telephone survey varies; the lack of face to face contact can both be an advantage and disadvantage. Personal cues cannot be given or received, hence there cannot be an accusation of researcher bias. However, this is not conducive to getting a greater insight into the perceptions, feelings and thoughts of the interviewee. Further, interviewees may not be easy with a faceless researcher as they may fear lack of confidentiality of their views.
In this research, the length of the questionnaire and the nature of the questions which required some thought was not suitable for administration over the phone. Hence the telephone was used only to fix appointments for interviews to hand over questionnaires and make presentations to academics, in some cases before handing the questionnaires to staff.
Institutional or organizational (e.g., school district)
Site-specific (e.g., secondary school)
Parents of participants who are not considered adults
Campus approval (e.g., university or college) and Institutional Review Board (IRB)