Trusted Criminals. WHITE COLLAR CRIME IN CONTEMPORARY SOCIETY 4 TH ED. CHAPTER 7 ENTERPRISE CRIME, CONTREPRENEURIAL CRIME, AND TECHNOCRIME. Designed by: Jordan Land, M.S. Enterprise Crime: Organized Crime and White Collar Crime.
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WHITE COLLAR CRIME IN CONTEMPORARY SOCIETY 4TH ED.
Designed by: Jordan Land, M.S.
What are the differences between the
classical professional criminal and
the contrepreneurial white collar
Millions of Americans receive postcards or e-mails informing them that they’ve won a glamorous vacation
If they respond to the inducements they are persuaded to pay a “travel club” or “service” fee before receiving their “prize”
The free vacation would turn out to have so many restrictions it would be useless to the recipient
Recipients often ended up with no vacation at all or with one for which they paid a substantial amount of money
Payday lenders operating online or from storefronts target people with modest incomes who need small loans to make it through till payday
Some debt relief companies advise consumers to stop making payments on their debt on the claim that they will negotiate settlements on favorable terms, but by extracting large fees directly from clients’ bank accounts, often put clients in a deeper hole
Some companies that offer to raise credit scores do so by falsifying the customer’s credit history—a form of fraud—and charge a hefty fee to do so
People have paid fees to “employment agencies” that guarantee them jobs. After sending in their money, many clients never hear from the agency again, or receive sloppily-prepared resumes or outdated lists of jobs or corporate contacts. In most cases, applicants do not obtain jobs
“Educational consultants” collect thousands of dollars in return for the false promise that the consultant will ensure their place in a school
Other scams exist involving diplomas, training, and financial assistance
The National Consumers League estimated in a recent year that telemarketing frauds extract an average of $845 from each victim.
These operations may offer tempting investments, prizes, vitamins, etc.
Examples include enticements for “cash loans” in which callers are charged for generic information packages on how to apply for bank loans, “one-shot” credit cards, bogus health product promotions, and penny-stock offerings based on misleading information about new companies.
Middle-class people seeking a high return on their investments can be susceptible to fraud
Ex. About 6,000 people who invested $350 million in Colonial Realty in the 1980s lost much of their money when the operation turned out to be fraudulent
Some victims of investment fraud are quite wealthy
Ex. A New York college student persuaded 100 well-off individuals to invest millions with the investing entity he established and instead of investing the money, he spent most of it on a lavish lifestyle
Technocrime is any crime facilitated by any sophisticated form of technology
It has been described as a subset of or new form of white collar crime
But not all illegalities committed with technology are white collar crimes. Ex.—technocrime committed by spies or terrorists, the use of computers for disseminating child pornography, or the use of the internet by pedophiles to solicit victims
Computer crime is an illegal act wherein computers and computer technology are used to commit the offense
A computer may be the tool of a crime or the target of a crime
Categories include internal computer crimes (sabotaging programs), telecommunications crimes (hacking and illegal bulletin boards), computer manipulation crimes (embezzlements and frauds), computers in support of criminal enterprises, and hardware/software thefts
An increasing proportion of theft today takes the form of stealing information, pirating software and electronic products, and copying intellectual property
An estimated 1/3 of business software is pirated
Business transactions carried out on the internet have generated broad new opportunities for criminal conduct
The relative anonymity of the internet can facilitate crime
Businesses have become increasingly concerned about “click fraud”
Advertisers must pay for each “click” on their ads, but believe that in some cases competitors are deliberately driving their advertising costs up by fraudulent clicking
The internet has also facilitated identity theft and the theft of confidential information
A considerable amount of computer crime or cybercrime is carried out by or through businesses or by people within the context of a legitimate occupation, victimizing consumers and individuals
The use of computers greatly increases the potential size and scope of thefts
It also enables people working in certain occupations to use a “salami technique”— that is, to steal small amounts of assets from many sources
Despite increasing publicity about computer crimes, prosecutions for such crimes are relatively few in number, constituting a fraction of prosecutors’ caseloads
The single most common charges pertain to child pornography
Traditional criminal laws are not always applicable to crimes committed by manipulation of electronic software
Most state and federal laws applicable to computer crime came into being in the 1980s
1986—Congress passed a computer Fraud and Abuse Act, which intended to make the use of computers for fraud and theft a felony
1996—passage of the National Information Infrastructure Protection Act eliminated some of the common defenses in computer crime cases
2000—Internet False Identification Prevention Act
2000—USA Patriot Act added amendments to the 1996 law
Investigation of computer crime require specially trained personnel and tend to be quite time consuming
Criminal justice agencies on all levels must devote more resources to technocrime
It is often necessary to resolve computer crimes privately and informally, in part because special complications arise if cases are pursued through the criminal justice system
ATMs, telecommunications systems, facsimile machines and other forms of technology also provide a range of opportunities for misappropriation or theft
Advances in all forms of copying technology have provided new opportunities for organized and professional crime
Businesses of all sizes are victimized by technocrime, but commit some of it as well