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York Curriculum Development Module 8: Differentiation . Toby Boss Lenny VerMaas Jen Madison April Kelley. Different Kids… Different Ways. Differentiation. June 21, 2011. One Description.

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york curriculum development module 8 differentiation

York Curriculum DevelopmentModule 8: Differentiation

Toby Boss

Lenny VerMaas

Jen Madison

April Kelley

differentiation
Different Kids…

Different Ways

Differentiation

June 21, 2011

one description
One Description

"Differentiated instruction is a teaching philosophy based on the premise that teachers should adapt instruction to student differences. Rather than marching students through the curriculum lockstep, teachers should modify their instruction to meet students\' varying readiness levels, learning preferences, and interests. Therefore, the teacher proactively plans a variety of ways to \'get at\' and express learning."

--Carol Ann Tomlinson

slide5
Or…
  • The teacher adjusts content, process, and product in response to student readiness, interests, and learning profile.
what can be differentiated
What Can Be Differentiated?
  • Content
    • What we teach
  • Product
    • The end result of learning
    • How students demonstrate their learning
  • Process
    • How students come to understand
  • Affect & Learning Environment
    • How students link thought and feeling
    • How the classroom looks and feels
varying content
Varying Content

Concentrate on relevant, essential learning

Pre-assess students’ skills and knowledge

Offer choice about topics to explore in greater depth

Match resources to students’ current level of understanding (i.e. accessible texts) or provide scaffolds (i.e. graphic organizers, marked texts)

what we teach & how students access it

content examples
Content Examples
  • Learning Contracts
  • Curriculum Compacting
  • Graphic Organizers
  • Manipulatives, Demonstrations
  • Varied Texts
  • Varied Methods of Accessing Text/Information
    • Audio recordings of passages
    • Supplementary materials (e.g. in native language)
varied accessible texts
Varied & Accessible Texts
  • Provide varied and accessible texts
graphic organizers
Graphic Organizers
  • Support students as they read, study, take notes, plan, and complete other tasks with graphic organizers.
  • Match the organizer with the purpose!
  • Not every student benefits from the same organizer. Match to student need.
scaffolding earth science
Scaffolding: Earth Science

Students are asked to sort rock samples with varying levels of support.

Adjusts content based on readiness

graphic organizers1
Graphic Organizers

Problem / Solution Outline

Compare / Contrast Pattern

HOW ALIKE?

HOW DIFFERENT?

WITH REGARD TO

varying process
Varying Process

Engage student learning modes (i.e., visual, auditory, kinesthetic)

Require students to think about ideas, grapple with content, and use information

Consider critical or creative thinking activities

how students engage with the content to understand

process examples
Process Examples
  • Flexible Grouping
  • Interactive Journals
  • Graphic Organizers
  • Cubing
  • Centers

Choice Options

RAFT

Jigsaw

Varied Resources

varied journal prompts math
Varied Journal Prompts: Math
  • Write a step-by-step set of directions, including diagrams and computations, to show someone who has been absent how to do the kind of problem we’ve worked with this week.
  • Write a set of directions for someone who is going to solve a problem we’ve studied this week. Be sure the directions address their problem, not just the computations.

Adjusts process based on readiness

flexible grouping writing topic generation
Group 1

Meet with teacher

Group brainstorm

Web ideas

Develop essential word bank

Develop storyboard, etc.

Begin writing

Group 2

Develop topic alone/pairs

Brainstorm “power ideas”

Meet with teacher to “ratchet”

Begin writing

Flexible Grouping Writing, topic generation

Adjusts content / process based on readiness

some examples earth science
Some Examples: Earth Science
  • Understanding cause-and-effect relationships helps us to make more accurate weather predictions.
  • Assignment:
    • Describe a time when you experienced/witnessed a cause-and-effect relationship using one of the following formats: short story, poem, song, cartoon, or detailed drawing with captions.
  • Adjusts process based on profile
varied practice vocabulary in any subject
Varied Practice(Vocabulary in Any Subject)
  • Choose one way to rehearse your understanding of the essential vocabulary:
    • Write the word, text definition, own definition, and nonlinguistic rep.
    • Make flashcards and quiz with a classmate for 20 minutes
    • Put each word and your definition in a song/rap & rehearse

Adjusts process based on learning profile

reach the objective any subject
Reach the Objective (Any Subject)
  • Choose (or assign) 2 of the 3 ways to learn the objective (know, understand)
    • Participate in class lecture
    • Read the chapter in the text (listen to companion CD)
    • Research the key concepts and report essential facts, examples

Adjusts process based on readiness, interest, & learning profile

r a f t response
R.A.F.T Response
  • Use writing to help students explore a concept from different perspectives and through different formats.
    • Role
    • Audience
    • Format
    • Topic
  • Differentiate:
    • Let students choose one or more components.
    • Raise Complexity – choose items farther from natural fit
    • Moderate/Lower Complexity – choose items closer to natural fit

(Wormelli, 2007)

cubing
Cubing
  • Students are grouped and provided cubes with level appropriate questions/tasks on each side to prompt practice or deep processing of content
  • Allows students to look at an issue/topic from a variety of angles
  • Allows differentiation by readiness, interest, and/or profile
  • Allows for differentiation in less obvious way.

(Gregory & Chapman, 2002, p.12)

cubing1
Cubing
  • Create cubes for groups of students with appropriate questions or tasks based on readiness, interest, and/or profile.
varying product
Varying Product

Vary when end results of learning allow for different ways to demonstrate learning

Hold students accountable for the essential skills/information

Encourage challenge and choice

Readiness: Bloom’s Taxonomy, Webb’s Depths of Knowledge

Profile: Multiple Intelligence Theory, Learning Styles Theory

Interest: Menus, Student Choice

Allow students to generate product ideas when appropriate

assessments or demonstrations of learning

product examples
Product Examples
  • Choice (Tic-Tac-Toe) Board
  • RAFT
  • Tiered Tasks
  • Variety of Format Choices
    • Traditional test
    • Portfolio
    • Demonstration
    • Essay
    • Blog, brochure, presentation…
tic tac toe
Tic-Tac-Toe
  • Provide product options that focus on key ideas and skills.
product menu
Product Menu

Provide product options that focus on key ideas and skills.

layered curriculum any subject
Layered Curriculum (Any Subject)
  • Layer C: gather information
    • What basic new knowledge do I need them to know/learn?
  • Layer B: apply/manipulate information
    • How can they apply this new information to previous information?
  • Layer A: critically evaluate the issue
    • What debatable issue in the real world deals with this topic?
layered curriculum any subject1
Layered Curriculum (Any Subject)
  • Layer C: gather information
    • Watch the DVD on bacteria. Take notes. Include information on bacteria shape and arrangement…
  • Layer B: apply/manipulate information
    • Does hand-washing reduce bacteria numbers? Prove your hypothesis using fingerprints…
  • Layer A: critically evaluate the issue
    • What issues are we currently facing due to the overuse of antibiotics?
layered curriculum
Layered Curriculum
  • http://www.help4teachers.com/
  • A basic overview: http://www.help4teachers.com/how.htm
the easiest way to start
The Easiest Way to Start
  • Occasional Student Choice (esp. product)
  • Pre-Assessment (screening, diagnostic tools)
  • Advice from Tomlinson:
    • http://www.differentiationcentral.com/videos.html#journey
homework another dirty word
Homework Another dirty word…!
  • Should every student have the same homework assignment? Explain your reasons.
  • What problems might emerge?
  • How could these be solved?
keep in mind
Keep in Mind…
  • Goal is not to lower standards, but to provide scaffolds to reach essential learning.
  • Example: Homework is adjusted, but follow-up quiz over essential target is same for all.
description
Description

"Differentiated instruction is a teaching philosophy based on the premise that teachers should adapt instruction to student differences. Rather than marching students through the curriculum lockstep, teachers should modify their instruction to meet students\' varying readiness levels, learning preferences, and interests. Therefore, the teacher proactively plans a variety of ways to \'get at\' and express learning."

--Carol Ann Tomlinson

your task
Your task…
  • Use the template to begin a differentiation plan for one of the units you teach.
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