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What lessons can we learn from the Netherlands and the United Kingdom?. Mich èle Belot University of Essex (UK). Outline. Overview of the Dutch and UK higher education system Admission procedures: From secondary school into higher education Public intervention in higher education

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What lessons can we learn from the netherlands and the united kingdom

What lessons can we learn from the Netherlands and the United Kingdom?

Michèle Belot

University of Essex (UK)


Outline
Outline United Kingdom?

Overview of the Dutch and UK higher education system

  • Admission procedures: From secondary school into higher education

  • Public intervention in higher education

  • Performance in higher education

    • Success rates in first year

  • Student enrolments, according to economic background

    Public subsidies and access to higher education

  • The Netherlands: Effects of a reduction in public subsidies to higher education in 1996 on access and performance in higher education

  • The UK: Overall increase in tuition fees in 2007

    Conclusions and lessons for Belgium


Admission procedures - Netherlands United Kingdom?

University

Education

Higher

Professional

Education

1 year

University

Preparatory

Education (VWO)

Senior General

Secondary

Education

(HAVO)

Senior

Secondary

Vocational

Education (MBO)

21%

20%

56%

Primary education


Admission procedures uk
Admission procedures - UK United Kingdom?

  • Pupils apply to universities in the last year of secondary school

  • Universities make offers conditional on A-level exam results


Costs and student support
Costs and student support United Kingdom?

  • Tuition fees

    NL: +/- 1500 euro

    UK: £1175 (2005-2006)

  • Student support

    NL: Support for costs of living (Student Support Act 1992)

    • Decreased over time

    • Widening of lending possibilities

      UK: Means-tested tuition fees, loans


Fees and student support in nl
Fees and student support in NL United Kingdom?

  • Netherlands

  • Annual fee + costs of living


Grants loans and performance in nl
Grants / loans and performance in NL United Kingdom?

  • Grant conditional on performance (students must pass at least 50% of the total number of credits)


Student performance in NL United Kingdom?

Source: CBS Netherlands


Student enrolments
Student enrolments United Kingdom?

  • Overall: Participation rates in tertiary education (type A) – OECD Education at a Glance (2001)

    • NL: 32%

    • UK: 33.7%

    • Belgium: 46.3%


Participation and socio economic background
Participation and socio-economic background United Kingdom?

  • Correlation between enrolments and socio-economic background.

    Netherlands:

    University education:

    50% of students have a father with a higher education diploma

    30% of students have a mother with a higher education diploma

    Higher vocational education:

    30% of students with father with a higher education diploma

    15-20% with mother with university diploma

    Overall: 25% of the population has a higher education diploma

  • However:

    • No link between parental background and participation once we control for ability (grade at secondary final exam) and type of secondary education



Public subsidies and access to higher education
Public subsidies and access to higher education United Kingdom?

  • Experience from the Netherlands

  • Experience from the UK


Public subsidies and performance in higher education
Public subsidies and performance in higher education United Kingdom?

  • Lessons from the Netherlands

  • In 1996, reduction of the amount of student support from 5 years to 4 years (i.e. nominal duration of studies)

  • Comparing a sample of students before and after the reform, we find:

    • No effect on total student enrolments

    • Students reallocated from university to higher professional education

    • Performance increased: Lower drop-outs, larger number of units completed per year


The effects of the reform
The effects of the reform United Kingdom?

  • Mainly affected relatively good students

  • No stronger effects according to educational background


Reform and choice
Reform and choice United Kingdom?



Lessons for belgium
Lessons for Belgium United Kingdom?

  • Over-representation of students from good socio-economic backgrounds

    • Democratization of higher education should take place earlier (primary and secondary school)

  • Selection at entry / student support

    • Does not constitute a barrier for low-income families


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