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Molecular Evolutionary Analysis. Dan Graur. 1959. Q: We may ask the question where in the now living systems the greatest amount of information of their past history has survived and how it can be extracted? A: Best fit are the macromolecules which carry the genetic information.

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Presentation Transcript
molecules as documents of evolutionary history
Q: We may ask the question where in the now living systems the greatest amount of information of their past history has survived and how it can be extracted?

A: Best fit are the macromolecules which carry the genetic information.

Molecules as documents of evolutionary history
slide6

“Searching for an objective reconstruction of the vanished past is surely the most challenging task in biology.”

“In one sense, everything in biology has already been ‘published’ in the form of DNA sequences of genomes.”

1991

Sydney Brenner

slide7

Assumption:

Life is monophyletic

slide8

ancestor

descendant 1

descendant 2

Any two organisms share a common ancestor in their past

slide9

(5 MYA)

ancestor

Some organisms have very recent ancestors.

slide10

(18 MYA)

ancestor

Some have less recent ancestors…

slide11

(120 MYA)

ancestor

…and less recent.

slide12

(1,500 MYA)

ancestor

But, any two organisms share a common ancestor in their past

slide13

The differences between 1 and 2 are the result of changes on the lineage leading to descendant 1+those on the lineage leading to descendant 2.

descendant 1

descendant 2

ancestor

slide17

Example:

1. the number of nucleotide substitutions per site between two non-coding sequences (K) according to Kimura’s two parameter model

slide18

Example:

2. the number of synonymous nucleotide substitution per synonymous site between two coding sequences (KS) according to Jukes and Cantor’s one parameter model

slide19

Example: the number of nonsynonymous nucleotide substitution per nonsynonymous site between two coding sequences (KA) according to Jukes and Cantor’s one parameter model

slide21

r = rate of substitution = number of

substitutions per site per year

Ki

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