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Chapter One. Introducing Biological Psychology Shorten!!!. Biological Psychology as an Interdisciplinary Field. Includes the study of psychology, biology, physiology, biochemistry, the neural sciences and related fields.

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Chapter one

Chapter One

Introducing Biological Psychology

Shorten!!!


Biological psychology as an interdisciplinary field
Biological Psychology as an Interdisciplinary Field

  • Includes the study of psychology, biology, physiology, biochemistry, the neural sciences and related fields.

  • Biological Psychology: the study of relationships between the nervous system and behavior, which can be circular.

  • Example:

    • high testosterone may produce aggression (biology affects behavior),

    • but watching your favorite sports team lose may reduce testosterone levels (behavior affects biology).


Highlights in the biological psychology timeline
Highlights in the Biological Psychology Timeline

  • Prehistoric (7000 yrs ago):

    • Trepanation

Courtesy San Diego Museum of Man


Highlights in the biological psychology timeline1
Highlights in the Biological Psychology Timeline

  • Egyptians (5000 yrs ago):

  • Greek Thinkers (4th century BC):

Courtesy San Diego Museum of Man


Ren descartes 1596 1650

http://www.nyu.edu/pages/linguistics/courses/v610051/gelmanr/http://www.nyu.edu/pages/linguistics/courses/v610051/gelmanr/

René Descartes (1596-1650)

  • Continued the notion that fluids produced movement.

  • Withdrawal Reflex

    • Nerves sense heat or pain and opened “pores” in the brain.

    • Pores release animal spirits which flow through hollow tubes in the body.

    • Reservoirs in the muscles would fill with these spirits, causing the foot to pull away from the fire.


Ren descartes 1596 16501
René Descartes (1596-1650) http://www.nyu.edu/pages/linguistics/courses/v610051/gelmanr/

  • The mind-body question:

    • Dualism:

      • The belief that the body is physical but the mind (or soul) is not.

    • Monism:

      • The belief that the mind is the product of activity in the nervous system.


Ren descartes 1596 16502
René Descartes (1596-1650) http://www.nyu.edu/pages/linguistics/courses/v610051/gelmanr/

  • The mind-body problem:

    • Pre-Descartes

      • mind influences body, but not vice versa; the puppeteer and puppet

    • Descartes: a mutual interaction

      • Mind and body both influence each other

      • Pineal gland

        • The site of the mind-body interaction


The brain sciences advanced quickly 1500 1800
The Brain Sciences Advanced Quickly http://www.nyu.edu/pages/linguistics/courses/v610051/gelmanr/(1500-1800)

  • Electricity established as the mode of communication used by the nervous system

Galvani’s Lab


The brain sciences continue to sound more modern
The Brain Sciences Continue to Sound More Modernhttp://www.nyu.edu/pages/linguistics/courses/v610051/gelmanr/

  • Early 1800s:

    • Sensory and motor information travels in separate pathways

    • i.e., info is only sent in one direction


The brain sciences continue to sound more modern1
The Brain Sciences Continue to Sound More Modernhttp://www.nyu.edu/pages/linguistics/courses/v610051/gelmanr/

  • Phrenology(popular from 1820 to 1850)

    • the correlation of bumps on the skull with personal traits, was misguided in most respects,

    • but was modern in its acceptance that functions may belocalized in the brain (localization of function).

http://mcvey.files.wordpress.com/2007/04/phrenology.jpg


The neuron doctrine
The Neuron Doctrinehttp://www.nyu.edu/pages/linguistics/courses/v610051/gelmanr/

  • Nervous system comprised a vast array of independent, separate nerve cells.

  • Santiago Ramón y Cajal(1852-1934)

    • Proposed Neuron Doctrine

From Santiago Ramon y Cajal, Histologie du systeme nerveux de l’homme et des vertebres. Paris: A. Maloine, 1909–1911


Important concepts that we take for granted today
Important Conceptshttp://www.nyu.edu/pages/linguistics/courses/v610051/gelmanr/(that we take for granted today)

  • The nervous system (esp. brain) controls behavior

  • The nervous systemcommunicates with electricity

  • Sensory and motor information travels in separate pathways

  • Nervous system is divided into independent, separate nerve cells

  • Functions may be localized in the brain.


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