New and Renewable Energy Systems for Cooking in MDM. Priyadarshini Karve Samuchit Enviro Tech Email: [email protected] How Much Energy do we actually need?. Fuel wood requirement for a mid-day meal comprising of rice, sambhar, and boiled potota/egg is cooked on a three stone fire:
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Email: [email protected]
Fuel wood requirement for a mid-day meal comprising of rice, sambhar, and boiled potota/egg is cooked on a three stone fire:
160 g per child per day
(Ref: data collected from schools by TIDE, Bangalore)
Total number of children fed across India under MDM: 111 million
Total quantity of fuel wood potentially required: 17,600 ton/day
Equivalent quantity of LPG required if the same food is cooked on a commercial LPG stove: 979 ton/day (51,462 commercial cylinders/day)
Heat in the ‘fire’
Heat in the ‘cooking pot’
Chemical energy ‘locked’ in the fuel
Heat from ignition and air
Unburnt / partially burnt fuel leading to ‘loss’
Heat loss to atmosphere
Use of more efficient cooking energy devices (improved cook stove, LPG, solar, etc.) will reduce energy requirement by at least 50%.
Cooks trained on energy efficient cooking practices will reduce energy consumption by a further 5-10%.
Use of cooking utensils designed for maximum heat transfer efficiency and for specific food items and quantities can further improve fuel use efficiency by about 10-15%.
Uniquely designed systems comprising of fuel + stove + utensils best suited to the needs of a school, operated by properly trained cooks can collectively reduce energy requirement by about 75% from the current status.
Steam cooker consisting of a charcoal brazier, cooker pot, a set of three utensils, and a tailor made pot skirt.
Available in four sizes to suit different food quantity requirements.
70% more efficient than cooking the same quantity of food on a traditional charcoal brazier.
We promote ‘renewable’ charcoal made from locally available biomass waste through local livelihood generation.
ASHDEN AWARD FOR RENEWABLE ENERGY, 2002
Improved stove (different designs) + firewood
Improved stove (different designs) + biomass briquettes
LPG stove + LPG
Biogas stove + biogas produced from cowdung and/or kitchen and market waste
Solar cooking (different designs)
Combinations of all or several of the above
Combining any of these with specially designed cooking utensils
A menu of energy options suited to the MDM programme in each state can be developed through collaboration of experts, local R&D establishments, and local manufacturers and fuel suppliers.
A school can use a simple decision making tool to select the best option from the menu to meet its unique needs.
High performance as well as safety and hygiene standards can be achieved through totally tailor made solutions, backed by suitable training.
Reduction in energy requirement Reduction in energy cost + Reduction in occupational health and environmental impact
Energy required for boiling water = 72 kcal/kg
Service required: Boiling 100 lit of water
Running cost for a fuel + stove system under consideration
= [(72 kcal x 100 kg x 100/efficiency in percentage)/calorific value in kcal/kg] x price of fuel in Rs./kg
Kitchen energy system can be redesigned to reduce dependence on commercial LPG for any community or commercial kitchen.
Estimated 8-10 kg LPG eq/day
2 commercial stoves run
for 4-5 hrs each per day
= Rs.600-800 saved/day
Estimated 50-60 kg
Estimated 20-25 kg biogas from
two large biogas plants
60 kg biomass briquettes
@ Rs.10/kg = Rs.600
Daily 6 hr use of two
20 kg LPG equivalent/day
= Rs.1000 saved/day
1000 meals/day consisting of roti, vegetable, dal, rice, sweet are cooked in the community kitchen.
Original energy usage: 1.5 commercial cylinder/day
Commercial cylinder as back up
Capacity: 10 m3 Digester (plastic or masonry tank )
7.5 m3 gas holder (plastic tank)
Unit Cost: Approx Rs.300,000
Pay back period: 3-4 years, for commercial LPG replacement
Operating cost: Electricity for Food Pulper, 1 hp
Labour 2 hr/day (at actual)
Gas production: 3-5 kg LPG eq/day
Area open to sunlight throughout the day 3 m x 3 m
Water ~ 100 lit/day (spent slurry can be recycled)
Feedstock: Food waste, any green plant matter, pulped, up to 30 kg
Clean and smokeless burning of biomass
Reducing toxic emissions
For bulk cooking in establishment likeMess, Canteen, Restaurant, Caterers, Dining halls, Roadside eateries
Fuels used: firewood, biomass briquettes, coconut shells, etc.
Fuel cost saving: 60-85%
Electric blower achieves forced draft gasification.
Nonelectric forced draft option also available.
Funding from the Ministry will be required initially for data collection, and development of performance criteria and decision making tool at national level, and a ‘menu’ of possible solutions for each state.
Potential donors and funders for the actual equipment: Petroleum companies, local business houses (under CSR activity), local government bodies, etc.
Seed finance for purchase of equipment/creation of required infrastructure: Local banks, SHG federations, etc.
Carbon/Climate finance: Monetisation of the carbon emission reduction accrued through reducing use of unsustainably harvested firewood and substitution of LPG.
The most optimum cooking energy system, based on local, renewable fuels/energy sources can be tailor made to suit the requirement of each school.
This approach will involve initial cost to put the systems in place, but is justified in terms of health, environmental and economic gains in the long run.
The approach provides a long lasting solution to the energy aspect of the MDM programme, minimising the running cost as well as hassle related to the energy aspect of the MDM kitchen at the school level.
There are various possibilities to obtain sponsorship for the actual equipment or infrastructure.