Daejeon un esa nasa jaxa workshop 20 25 sept 2009 satellite anomalies and space weather
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Daejeon, UN/ESA/NASA/JAXA Workshop, 20-25 Sept 2009 Satellite Anomalies and Space Weather. By Lev Dorman for INTAS team (A. Belov, L. Dorman,, E. Eroshenko, L. Gromova, N. Iucci, D. Ivanus,. O . Kryakunova , A. Levitin, M . Parisi, N . Ptitsyna, M. Tyasto, E. Vernova, G. Villoresi,

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Daejeon, UN/ESA/NASA/JAXA Workshop, 20-25 Sept 2009 Satellite Anomalies and Space Weather

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Daejeon un esa nasa jaxa workshop 20 25 sept 2009 satellite anomalies and space weather

Daejeon, UN/ESA/NASA/JAXA Workshop, 20-25 Sept 2009Satellite Anomalies and Space Weather

By Lev Dorman for INTAS team

(A. Belov, L. Dorman,, E. Eroshenko, L. Gromova, N. Iucci,

D. Ivanus,. O. Kryakunova , A. Levitin, M. Parisi,N. Ptitsyna, M. Tyasto, E. Vernova, G. Villoresi,

V. Yanke)

Japan, ICRC 2003


Abstract

Abstract

Results of the INTAS Project, which aims to improve the methods of safeguarding satellites in the Earth’s magnetosphere from the negative effects of the space environment, are presented. Anomaly data from the “Kosmos” series satellites in the period 1971–1999 are combined in one database, together with similar information on other spacecrafts. This database contains, beyond the anomaly information, various characteristics of the space weather: geomagnetic activity indices (Ap, AE and Dst), fluxes and fluencies of electrons and protons at different energies, high energy cosmic ray variations and other solar, interplanetary and solar wind data. A comparative analysis of the distribution of each of these parameters relative to satellite anomalies was carried out for the total number of anomalies (about 6000 events), and separately for high (5000 events) and low (about 800 events) altitude orbit satellites. No relation was found between low and high altitude satellite anomalies. Daily numbers of satellite anomalies, averaged by a superposed epoch method around sudden storm commencements and proton event onsets for high (>1500 km) and low (<1500 km) altitude orbits revealed a big difference in a behavior. Satellites were divided on several groups according to the orbital characteristics (altitude and inclination).

The relation of satellite anomalies to the environmental parameters was found to be different for various orbits that should be taken into account under developing of the anomaly frequency models.

Japan, ICRC 2003


Satellite anomaly data

Satellite anomaly data

The main contribution was from NGDC satellite anomaly database, created by J. Allen and D. Wilkinson.

+

“Kosmos” data (circular orbit at 800 km altitude and 74º inclination)

+

1994 year anomalies - Walter Thomas report (Thomas, 1995).

+

The satellites characteristics - from different Internet sources:

http://spacescience.nasa.gov/missions/index.htm

http://www.skyrocket.de/space/index2.htm

http://hea-www.harvard.edu/QEDT/jcm/space/jsr/jsr.html

http://www.astronautix.com/index.htm

Japan, ICRC 2003


Satellite and anomaly number

Satellite and Anomaly Number

~300 satellites~6000 satellite anomalies

Japan, ICRC 2003


Red green and blue groups

Red, GreenandBlueGroups

Japan, ICRC 2003


Period with big number of satellite anomalies

Period with big number of satellite anomalies

Upper panel – cosmic ray activity near the Earth: variations of 10 GV cosmic ray density; solar proton (> 10 MeV and >60 MeV) fluxes.

Lower panel – geomagnetic activity: Kp- and Dst-indices.

Vertical arrows on the upper panel correspond to the malfunction moments.

Japan, ICRC 2003


Other example

Other example

  • Upper panel – cosmic ray activity near the Earth: variations of 10 GV cosmic ray density; electron (> 2 MeV) fluxes – hourly data.

  • Vertical arrows correspond to the malfunction moments. Lower row – all malfunctions.

  • Lower panel – geomagnetic activity: Kp- and Dst-indices.

Japan, ICRC 2003


Seasonal dependence

Seasonal dependence

Anomaly’s frequency (all orbits)with statistical errors

27-day averaged frequencies and correspondinghalf year wave

Japan, ICRC 2003


Seasonal dependence1

Seasonal dependence

Satellite anomalies frequency and Ap-index averaged over the period 1975-1994. The curve with points is the 27-day running mean values; the grey band corresponds to the 95 % confidence interval. The sinusoidal curve is a semiannual wave with maxima in equinoxes best fitting the frequency data.

Japan, ICRC 2003


Seasonal dependence different orbits

Seasonal dependence (different orbits)

27-day averaged frequencies and correspondinghalf year wave for different satellite groups

Japan, ICRC 2003


Time distribution of anomalies

Time distribution of anomalies

Japan, ICRC 2003


Space weather indices

Space Weather Indices

  • Solar activity

  • Solar wind

  • Geomagnetic activity

  • Solar protons

  • Electrons

  • Ground Level Cosmic Rays

    ~30 indices in total

Japan, ICRC 2003


Solar activity

Solar activity

27-day running averaged Sunspot Numbers and Solar Radio Flux

We useSSN and F10.7– daily Sunspot Numbers and radio fluxes;

SSN27, SSN365– 1 year and 1 rotation running averaged SSN

Japan, ICRC 2003


Geomagnetic activity

Geomagnetic activity

Daily Ap-index and minimal (for this day) Dst-index

We useApd, Apmax– daily and maximal Ap-index;

AEd, AEmax – daily and maximal AE-index;

DSTd, DSTmin – daily and minimal Dst-index;

Japan, ICRC 2003


Protons and electrons

Protons and electrons

Daily proton and electron fluencies

We usep10, p100 – daily proton (>10, >100 MeV) fluencies (GOES);

p10d, p60d – daily proton (>10, >60 MeV) fluxes (IMP);

p10max, p60max – maximal hourly proton (>10, >60 MeV) fluxes (IMP);

e2 – daily electron (>2 MeV) fluence (GOES);

e2d, e2max – daily and maximal electron (>2 MeV) fluх (GOES);

Japan, ICRC 2003


Solar wind

Solar Wind

Daily solar wind speed and intensity of interplanetary magnetic field

We useVsw, Vmax– daily and maximal solar wind speed;

Bm – daily IMF intensity;

Bzd, Bzmin– daily and minimal z-component IMF (GSM);

Bznsum– sum of negative z-component values;

Japan, ICRC 2003


Cosmic ray activity indices

Cosmic Ray Activity Indices +

Daily CRA-indices and sum of negative IMF z-component

We useda10, CRA– indices of cosmic ray activity, obtained from ground level CR observations (Belov et al., 1999);

Eakd, Eakmax – estimation of daily and maximal energy, transferred from solar wind to magnetosphere (Akasofu, 1987);

Japan, ICRC 2003


Ssc and anomalies

SSC and anomalies

  • Averaged behavior of satellite anomalies frequency near Sudden Storm Commencements

  • 634 days with SSC in total

  • a – all storms

  • b – storms with Ap>50 nT

  • c – storms with Ap>80 nT

Japan, ICRC 2003


Ssc and anomalies1

SSC and anomalies

  • Averaged behavior Ap, Dst – indices of geomagnetic activity and satellite malfunction frequency near Sudden Storm Commencements

  • Malfunctions start later and last longer than magnetic storms

Japan, ICRC 2003


Proton events and anomalies

Proton events and anomalies

  • Averaged behavior of p>10, p>100 MeV and satellite malfunction frequency during proton event periods.

  • The enhancement with >300 pfu were used

Japan, ICRC 2003


Proton events and anomalies1

Proton events and anomalies

Mean satellite anomaly frequencies in 0- and 1-days of proton enhancementsin dependence on the maximal > 10 MeV flux

Japan, ICRC 2003


Proton events and anomalies2

Proton events and anomalies

Probability of any anomaly (highaltitude – highinclination group) in dependence on the maximal proton > 10 and >60 MeV flux

Japan, ICRC 2003


Proton and electron hazards on the different orbits

Proton and electron hazardson the different orbits

Mean proton and electron fluencies on the anomaly day

Japan, ICRC 2003


Anomalies and different indices precursors

Anomalies and different indices (precursors)

Mean behavior of Ap-index in anomaly periods (GEO satellites)

Japan, ICRC 2003


Anomalies and different indices precursors1

Anomalies and different indices (precursors)

Mean behavior of >2 MeV electron fluence in anomaly periods (GEO satellites)

Japan, ICRC 2003


Anomalies and different indices precursors2

Anomalies and different indices (precursors)

Mean behavior of solar wind speed in anomaly periods (GEO satellites)

Japan, ICRC 2003


Models of the anomaly frequency

Models of the anomaly frequency

  • We checked ~ 30 different Space Weather parameters and a lot of their combinations

  • We used the parameters for anomaly day and for several preceding days

  • Only simplest linear regression models were checked (exclusions for e and p indices)

  • Obtained models contain 3-8 different geo- heliophysical parameters

  • The models appear to be different for different satellite groups

Example of frequency model (GEO):

Japan, ICRC 2003


Models of the anomaly frequency1

Models of the anomaly frequency

low alt.-high incl.

cc=0.2

e>2 MeV

CRA

Apd, AEd, sf

Vsw, Bzd

high alt.- low incl.

cc=0.39

  • e>2 MeV

  • Apd, AEd, sf

  • p60d, p100 Vsw

  • Bzd, da10

high alt.-high incl.cc=0.7

p>100 MeV, p60d

Eak, Bznsum, SSN365

Japan, ICRC 2003


Sep forecast steps from poster ps 18

SEP FORECAST STEPS(FROM POSTER PS-18)

  • 1. AUTOMATICALLY DETERMINATION OF THE SEP EVENT START BY NEUTRON MONITOR DATA

  • 2. DETERMINATION OF ENERGY SPECTRUM OUT OF MAGNETOSPHERE BY THE METHOD OF COUPLING FUNCTIONS

  • 3. DETERMINATION OF TIME OF EJECTION, SOURCE FUNCTION AND PARAMETERS OF PROPAGATION BY SOLVING AN INVERSE PROBLEM

  • 4. FORECASTING OF EXPECTED SEP FLUXES AND COMPARISON WITH OBSERVATIONS; CORRECTION OF THE INVERSE PROBLEM SOLUTION

  • 5. COMBINED FORECASTING ON THE BASIS OF NEUTRON MONITOR AND SATELLITE DATA

Japan, ICRC 2003


Principles of magnetic storms forecasting

Principles of Magnetic Storms Forecasting

Japan, ICRC 2003


Summary

Summary

  • The relation between Space Weather parameters and frequency of satellite anomalies are different for different satellite groups (orbits)

  • The models simulated anomaly frequency in different orbits are developed and could be adjusted for forecasting (mainly energetic particles and magnetic activity)

  • The models for forecasting of energetic particle events and magnetic activity can be developed in near future on the basis of ground and satellite observations

Japan, ICRC 2003


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