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### Linear Circuit analysis (ELE101)

Course Instructor: Engr. KhalilUllah

Lecturer Dept. of Electrical Engineering City University

Contents of Today’s Lecture

- Course Syllabus
- Tentative Schedule
- An Important Note to the Students
- Introduction
- Before we begin
- Hints on problem solving
- Basic Definitions

An Important Note to the Students

- This is your first course in electrical engineering. Although electrical engineering is an exciting and challenging discipline, the course may intimidate you. A good textbook and a good professor are an advantage but you are the one who does the learning. If you keep the following ideas in mind, you will do very well in this course.
- This course is a foundation for other courses
- Solving problems is an essential part of learning
- At the end of each chapter we will have a real-life example related to chapter being taught.
- Attempt the exercise and some review questions at the end of each chapter
- U should have strong mathematical background specially in matrices

Introduction

- Technology is rapidly changing the way we do things; we now have computers in our homes,electronic control systems in our cars,cellular phones that can be used just about anywhere,robots that assemble products on production lines,and so on.
- A first step to understanding these technologies is electric circuit analysis.
- Circuit Analysis provides you with the knowledge of basic principles that you need to understand the behavior of electric and electronic devices,circuits,and systems.
- In this course,we will develop and explore its basic ideas.

Before We Begin

- Let us look at a few examples of the technology at work.
- As we go through these, we will see devices and components that are not yet been discussed. Just concentrate on general Ideas.
- As a first example, consider a VCR(Charles Ginsburg and Ray Dolby 1956 )
- Its design is based on electrical, electronic and magnetic circuit principles.
- For example, resistors, capacitors, control the voltages and currents that operate its motors and transistors amplify the audio and video signals that are the heart of the system.

Example 1

- Figure 1. VCR Internal Circuitry

Hints on Problem Solving

- Make a sketch (e.g.,a circuit diagram),mark on it what you know,then identify what it is that you are trying to determine.
- Watch for “implied data”such as the phrase “the capacitor is initially uncharged”. (As you will find outlater,this means that the initial voltage on the capacitor is zero.)
- Think through the problem to identify the principles involved,then look for
- relationships that tie together the unknown and known quantities.
- Substitutetheknowninformationintotheselectedequation(s)andsolvefortheunknown.
- Check the answer to see that it is sensible—that is,is it in the “right ballpark”? Does it have the correct sign? Do the units match?

Linear Circuit Analysis

- Circuit:
- A closed path followed or capable of being followed by electric current
- A configuration of electrically or electromagnetically connected components are devices.
- An electric circuit is a connection of components (Voltage/Current sources; Resistors; Inductors & Capacitors ) such that there is some power supplied and dissipated. This means that if you connect a resistor to a battery using conductor wires, then you have created an electrical circuit.
- Circuits are represented on a paper using diagrams

Circuit Diagrams

- Block diagrams:
- The
- The over all circuits is broken into blocks.
- Each block represent a portion of the system.
- Flow is from left to right

- This helps in visualizing circuits and their operation by showing components as they actually appear.

- Use simplified standard symbols to represent circuit components

Linear Circuit

- That circuit which, for a sinusoidal input voltage of frequency f, any output of the circuit is also sinusoidal with frequency f.
- Which obey the superposition principle. i.e.
- linear circuit is one in which the values of the components, the resistance, capacitance, inductance, etc. don\'t change with the level of voltage or current in the circuit.
- Examples:
- Amplifiers, Differentiators, Integrators

Circuit Analysis Contd….

- The process of finding the voltage across and current flowing through each component in the circuit.
- Different techniques are used to analyze a circuit
- laws and the principles, concepts, mathematical relationships, and methods of analysis that have evolved from them are known as circuit theory
- Circuit analysis is a special case of emf theory which concentrates on static and moving electric charges

Circuit Analysis

- There are three basic assumptions in circuit analysis

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