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Section 19.2. Chemistry 19.2. Hydrogen Ions and Acidity. Hydrogen Ions and Acidity. 19.2.

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Chemistry 19 2

Section 19.2

Chemistry 19.2

Hydrogen Ions and Acidity


Hydrogen ions and acidity
Hydrogen Ions and Acidity

19.2

  • To test a diagnosis of diabetic coma, a doctor orders several tests, including the acidity of the patient’s blood. Results from this test will be expressed in units of pH. You will learn how the pH scale is used to indicate the acidity of a solution and why the pH scale is used.


Hydrogen ions from water

19.2

Hydrogen Ions from Water

  • Hydrogen Ions from Water

    • The reaction in which water molecules produce ions is called the self-ionization of water.


Hydrogen ions from water1

19.2

Hydrogen Ions from Water

  • In the self-ionization of water, a proton (hydrogen ion) transfers from one water molecule to another water molecule.


Ion product constant for water

19.2

Ion Product Constant for Water

  • Ion Product Constant for Water

    • How are [H+] and [OH-] related in an aqueous solution?


Ion product constant for water1

19.2

Ion Product Constant for Water

  • For aqueous solutions, the product of the hydrogen-ion concentration and the hydroxide-ion concentration equals 1.0  10-14.

  • Any aqueous solution in which [H+] and [OH-] are equal is described as a neutral solution.


Ion product constant for water2

19.2

Ion Product Constant for Water

  • The product of the concentrations of the hydrogen ions and hydroxide ions in water is called the ion-product constant for water (Kw).


Ion product constant for water3

19.2

Ion Product Constant for Water

  • An acidic solution is one in which [H+] is greater than [OH-].


Ion product constant for water4

19.2

Ion Product Constant for Water

  • Unrefined hydrochloric acid, commonly called muriatic acid, is used to clean stone buildings and swimming pools.


Ion product constant for water5

19.2

Ion Product Constant for Water

  • A basic solution is one in which [H+] is less than [OH]. Basic solutions are also known as alkaline solutions.


Ion product constant for water6

19.2

Ion Product Constant for Water

  • Sodium hydroxide, or lye, is commonly used as a drain cleaner.






The ph concept

19.2

The pH Concept

  • The pH Concept

    • How is the hydrogen-ion concentration used to classify a solution as neutral, acidic, or basic?


The ph concept1

19.2

The pH Concept

  • The pH of a solution is the negative logarithm of the hydrogen-ion concentration.


The ph concept2

19.2

The pH Concept

  • Calculating pH


The ph concept3

19.2

The pH Concept

  • A solution in which [H+] is greater than1  10–7M has a pH less than 7.0 and is acidic. The pH of pure water or a neutral aqueous solution is 7.0. A solution with a pH greater than 7 is basic and has a [H+] of less than 1  10–7M.


The ph concept4

19.2

The pH Concept


The ph concept5

19.2

The pH Concept


The ph concept6

19.2

The pH Concept

  • Calculating pOH


The ph concept7

19.2

The pH Concept

  • pH and Significant Figures

(Concentration of H+ ions in solution)














Measuring ph

19.2

Measuring pH

  • Measuring pH

    • What is the most important characteristic of an acid-base indicator?


Measuring ph1

19.2

Measuring pH

  • An indicator is a valuable tool for measuring pH because its acid form and base form have different colors in solution.


Measuring ph2

19.2

Measuring pH

  • Phenolphthalein changes from colorless to pink at pH 7–9.


Measuring ph3

19.2

Measuring pH


Measuring ph4

19.2

Measuring pH

  • Universal Indicators


Measuring ph5

19.2

Measuring pH

  • pH Meters


19 2 section quiz
19.2 Section Quiz.

  • 1. If the [OH-] in a solution is 7.65  10-3M, what is the [H+] of this solution?

    • 7.65  10-17M

    • 1.31  10-12M

    • 2.12M

    • 11.88M


19 2 section quiz1
19.2 Section Quiz.

  • 2. The [OH-] for four solutions is given below. Which one of the solution is basic?

    • 1.0 x 10-6M

    • 1.0 x 10-8M

    • 1.0 x 10-7M

    • 1.0 x 10-14M


19 2 section quiz2
19.2 Section Quiz.

  • 3. What is the pH of a solution with a hydrogen-ion concentration of 8.5 x 10-2M?

    • 12.93

    • 8.50

    • 5.50

    • 1.07



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