Canadian history 1201 chapter 2
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Canadian History 1201 Chapter 2 . Entering a New Century 1900-1914. 2.1 Canada: Land of Opportunity. Emigrant: someone who leaves their home country Immigrant: someone who comes into a new country. 2.2: Railways and the Expansion of Canada. The Railway Boom

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Canadian History 1201 Chapter 2

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Canadian History 1201Chapter 2

Entering a New Century


2.1 Canada: Land of Opportunity

  • Emigrant: someone who leaves their homecountry

  • Immigrant: someone who comes into a new country

2.2: Railways and the Expansion of Canada

  • The Railway Boom

    • The Canadian Pacific Railway (CPR), built in the late 1800s, carried settlers, workers and finished products to the West and grain to the East.

    • The CPR wasn't adequate, so the Federal Government gave subsidies for two additional rail lines to the Grand Trunk Railway Co. and the Canadian Northern Railway.

2.2: Railways and the Expansion of Canada

  • Patterns of Settlement and Development

    • Many towns grew up around rail lines, stations and grain elevators.

2.3 The Changing Face of Canada

  • The Roots of Multiculturalism

    • Multiculturalism had its roots in the early 1900s.

    • Place names (Esterhazy) and building styles (onion-domed Orthodox churches) reflected the ethnic background of the people living in an area

2.3 The Changing Face of Canada

  • Growth of Cities

    • Canada's urban population increased a lot in the early 1900s.

    • People were looking for work in factories, and as a city's population grew, more jobs were created to build and maintain it.

    • Electric lights and streetcars were new inventions which helped city dwellers.

2.3 The Changing Face of Canada

  • New Provinces

    • In 1905, the Provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan were added to Canada. Previously, they were part of the Northwest Territories

    • In 1912, Manitoba, Ontario and Quebec expanded their borders to form their present shapes.

2.4 A Changing Economy

  • Capitalist System:

    • Capitalists invest inbusinesses. They make all business decisions based on consumer demands. This was new in the 20th century.

    • As a result of capitalism, a mass consumer culture developed. Mass-produced factory products were bought by consumers.

2.4 A Changing Economy

  • Industrial Growth: Primary Industries

    • Canada began exporting huge amounts of natural resources like wheat, minerals, paper and lumber in the early 20th century

2.4 A Changing Economy

  • Industrial Growth: Secondary Industries

    • Prior to 1900, most of Canada's wealthdepended on primary industries. Not so anymore; factories made a huge array of consumer products, from brooms to cars.

2.4 A Changing Economy

  • Industrial Growth: Tertiary Industries

    • The service industry (transportation, finance, utilities,...) expanded along with the other two industries. By the 1920s, it was the largest industry sector.

2.4 A Changing Economy

  • Foreign Trade:

    • John A. Macdonald's 'national policy' placed tariffs on imported manufactured goods. The idea was to make Canadian-made goods competitive.

    • Canada still relied on primary exports in the export trade, and new technologies made the country more efficient in these areas.

2.4 A Changing Economy

  • Technology and the Industrial Boom:

    • New technologies (esp. electricity) made industries more efficient, but often made humans redundant.

    • This allowed mass production of goods for the first time in Canada.

    • Mass media (newspapers, magazines, books) was brought on by the large-scale mechanization of the printing industry.

2.4 A Changing Economy

  • Section Questions-page 35

    • #1,2,3,4

2.5 The Growth of Big Business, Foreign Investment and Unions

  • Big Business

    • Business owners found that the bigger the factory, the cheaper you could make things and the more people would buy them.

    • Corporations were new in the 1900s.They were formed by alliances between bankers, financers and industrialists.

    • Department stores and catalogue shopping were new options for consumers.

2.5 The Growth of Big Business, Foreign Investment and Unions

  • Foreign Investment

    • Foreign investment was nothing new in Canada, but the Americans began investing heavily in such industries as pulp and paper mills.

    • 'Branch plants' were set up by American corporations to avoid Canadian tariff laws.

2.5 The Growth of Big Business, Foreign Investment and Unions

  • The Growth of Unions

    • In huge factories, workers did not often know who owned the facilities. Most hardly knew each other.

    • Unions were groups of workers formed to bargain with owners over wages, benefits and working conditions. If this failed, the whole union could go on strike.

2.5 The Growth of Big Business, Foreign Investment and Unions

  • Child Labour

    • Children were popular workers with owners because they didn't have to be paid as much as adults.

    • Unions fought against child labour, but this was partly to save jobs for adults.

    • Child labour laws were passed, but the number of children working in factories actually increased from 1900- 1910.

2.5 The Growth of Big Business, Foreign Investment and Unions

  • Section Questions - page 40

  • #2,3,4, 5,6

2.6 Inequality, Intolerance and Racism

  • The New Urban Poor

    • As workers moved to areas near factories, the need for housing outgrew the supply.

    • People were forced to live in cramped, unhealthy conditions. One in four babies died before its first birthday.

    • Governments wouldn’t help the urban poor much; this was left to churches and charities.

2.6 Inequality, Intolerance and Racism

  • Changing Lives for Native Peoples

    • More and more First Nations people were being forced onto reserves and were assimilated into the mainstream culture.

    • Churches believed that they had to “save” the First Nations people by educating them in far-away residential schools.

    • Children were sent to the schools and were not allowed to speak their language or practice their culture. Some were abused.

    • The Canadian Government made an official apology to the First Nations recently (summer 2007) and offered them compensation packages.

2.6 Inequality, Intolerance and Racism

  • Intolerance and Racism

    • All immigrants were sometimes treated poorly (mistrust, exclusion, violence), but non English-speaking ones had it worse:

      • The government officially blocked Black immigrants from settling out west.

      • Asian immigrants had a $500 head tax placed on them to enter Canada.

      • Race riots sometimes broke out in attempts to “keep Canada white”.

2.6 Inequality, Intolerance and Racism

  • Section Questions - page 44

    • #4,5,6,8

2.7 Women in the Early 20th Century

  • Women could work, but only if they were unmarried.

  • Jobs required low skill levels; servants, factory workers, office workers,…

  • By 1914, 21% of Canadian workers were women…but they were paid less than men for the same jobs.

Grafting ... a factory snap dating from 1900 of women in the jewellery industry

Sandy Trebick with chickens.

Saskatchewan Archives Board R-A20815

2.7 Women in the Early 20th Century

  • Women organize

    • Women’s Christian Temperance Union

    • National Council of the Women of Canada

    • These groups were formed to better the lives of women, children, workers and the poor

  • Women’s Suffrage

    • Women’s groups also lobbied for the right to vote

    • Dr. Emily Howard Stowe, Canada’s first female doctor, helped organize the first Canadian suffrage group

2.8 Canada, Britain and the Empire (p.48)

  • At the beginning of the 20th century, Canada’s defence and external affairs were still controlled by Britain

  • The attachment many Canadians felt towards Britain caused problems between English and French-speaking Canadians…especially during the Boer War

The Red Ensign, Canada’s original flag

British Parliament Buildings, London

2.8 Canada, Britain and the Empire

  • The South African War, 1899-1902 (p.49)

    • Prime Minister Laurier did not send the Canadian Army to South Africa

    • Instead, he allowed Canadians to volunteer to serve in the British Army

    • Canadians served well in the war, with a reputation as tough, brave, resourceful soldiers

Boer guerilla fighters

Canadians on the veldt in South Africa

2.8 Canada, Britain and the Empire

  • French-English Relations and the South African War (p.50)

    • English-speaking Canadians were enthusiastic about the Boer War and didn’t like Laurier’s response to it

    • French-speaking Canadians did not care about the war, and wanted to concentrate on building a strong Canada, independent from Britain

2.8 Canada, Britain and the Empire

  • The Naval Issue (p.51)

    • Britain and Germany were involved in a naval arms race and Canada was expected to contribute financially

    • Laurier’s compromise was to introduce the Naval Service Bill in 1910, in which Canada did not contribute to Britain but instead created its own navy

    • This annoyed both English and French-speaking Canadians

2.9 Canada and the United States

  • Canadian-American Relations in the Early 20th Century

    • As a result of fishing and sealing disputes and fears over American Imperialism, Canadian-American relations were tense.

    • If the Americans had invaded, they would have found little resistance. Canada had only a militia to fight with.

2.9 Canada and the United States

  • The Alaskan Boundary Dispute:

    • The U.S. bought Alaska from Russia in 1867, but the Canadian-Alaskan border was unclear.

    • The Yukon Gold Rush of 1898 brought the issue to the forefront as thousands of miners entered the area.

2.9 Canada and the United States

  • The Alaskan Boundary Dispute

    • The dispute centered on where the southern border was; did it follow the coastline (Canadian claim) or the inlets (American claim)?

    • A 6-person tribunal made up of 3 Americans, 2 Canadians and a Briton met in 1903 to settle the issue.

    • The results favoured the Americans because the British representative sided with the U.S. . Many Canadians felt betrayed by the British government.

2.9 Canada and the United States

  • Signs of Improved Relations:

    • By 1909, suspicions of the Americans were fading with the establishment of the International Joint Commission, which signed the Boundary Waters Treaty.

    • This commission was set up to resolve any more disputes over shared border waters. It still exists today.

2.9 Canada and the United States

  • Reciprocity and the 1911 Election

  • (Reciprocity=free trade between Canada & the U.S.)

    • It existed from 1854-1866, but Macdonald’s National Policy stopped it.

    • Reciprocity resurfaced with Laurier in 1910-1911, with many supporting and opposing viewpoints:

      • For: more markets for Canadian goods

      • Against: it would close Canadian industries; annexation by the U.S.

    • It became a major federal election issue in 1911, when Laurier’s Liberals were defeated by Borden’s Conservatives.

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