Canadian history 1201 chapter 2
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 34

Canadian History 1201 Chapter 2 PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 96 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

Canadian History 1201 Chapter 2 . Entering a New Century 1900-1914. 2.1 Canada: Land of Opportunity. Emigrant: someone who leaves their home country Immigrant: someone who comes into a new country. 2.2: Railways and the Expansion of Canada. The Railway Boom

Download Presentation

Canadian History 1201 Chapter 2

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Canadian history 1201 chapter 2

Canadian History 1201Chapter 2

Entering a New Century

1900-1914


2 1 canada land of opportunity

2.1 Canada: Land of Opportunity

  • Emigrant: someone who leaves their homecountry

  • Immigrant: someone who comes into a new country


2 2 railways and the expansion of canada

2.2: Railways and the Expansion of Canada

  • The Railway Boom

    • The Canadian Pacific Railway (CPR), built in the late 1800s, carried settlers, workers and finished products to the West and grain to the East.

    • The CPR wasn't adequate, so the Federal Government gave subsidies for two additional rail lines to the Grand Trunk Railway Co. and the Canadian Northern Railway.


2 2 railways and the expansion of canada1

2.2: Railways and the Expansion of Canada

  • Patterns of Settlement and Development

    • Many towns grew up around rail lines, stations and grain elevators.


2 3 the changing face of canada

2.3 The Changing Face of Canada

  • The Roots of Multiculturalism

    • Multiculturalism had its roots in the early 1900s.

    • Place names (Esterhazy) and building styles (onion-domed Orthodox churches) reflected the ethnic background of the people living in an area


2 3 the changing face of canada1

2.3 The Changing Face of Canada

  • Growth of Cities

    • Canada's urban population increased a lot in the early 1900s.

    • People were looking for work in factories, and as a city's population grew, more jobs were created to build and maintain it.

    • Electric lights and streetcars were new inventions which helped city dwellers.


2 3 the changing face of canada2

2.3 The Changing Face of Canada

  • New Provinces

    • In 1905, the Provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan were added to Canada. Previously, they were part of the Northwest Territories

    • In 1912, Manitoba, Ontario and Quebec expanded their borders to form their present shapes.


2 4 a changing economy

2.4 A Changing Economy

  • Capitalist System:

    • Capitalists invest inbusinesses. They make all business decisions based on consumer demands. This was new in the 20th century.

    • As a result of capitalism, a mass consumer culture developed. Mass-produced factory products were bought by consumers.


2 4 a changing economy1

2.4 A Changing Economy

  • Industrial Growth: Primary Industries

    • Canada began exporting huge amounts of natural resources like wheat, minerals, paper and lumber in the early 20th century


2 4 a changing economy2

2.4 A Changing Economy

  • Industrial Growth: Secondary Industries

    • Prior to 1900, most of Canada's wealthdepended on primary industries. Not so anymore; factories made a huge array of consumer products, from brooms to cars.


2 4 a changing economy3

2.4 A Changing Economy

  • Industrial Growth: Tertiary Industries

    • The service industry (transportation, finance, utilities,...) expanded along with the other two industries. By the 1920s, it was the largest industry sector.


2 4 a changing economy4

2.4 A Changing Economy

  • Foreign Trade:

    • John A. Macdonald's 'national policy' placed tariffs on imported manufactured goods. The idea was to make Canadian-made goods competitive.

    • Canada still relied on primary exports in the export trade, and new technologies made the country more efficient in these areas.


2 4 a changing economy5

2.4 A Changing Economy

  • Technology and the Industrial Boom:

    • New technologies (esp. electricity) made industries more efficient, but often made humans redundant.

    • This allowed mass production of goods for the first time in Canada.

    • Mass media (newspapers, magazines, books) was brought on by the large-scale mechanization of the printing industry.


2 4 a changing economy6

2.4 A Changing Economy

  • Section Questions-page 35

    • #1,2,3,4


2 5 the growth of big business foreign investment and unions

2.5 The Growth of Big Business, Foreign Investment and Unions

  • Big Business

    • Business owners found that the bigger the factory, the cheaper you could make things and the more people would buy them.

    • Corporations were new in the 1900s.They were formed by alliances between bankers, financers and industrialists.

    • Department stores and catalogue shopping were new options for consumers.


2 5 the growth of big business foreign investment and unions1

2.5 The Growth of Big Business, Foreign Investment and Unions

  • Foreign Investment

    • Foreign investment was nothing new in Canada, but the Americans began investing heavily in such industries as pulp and paper mills.

    • 'Branch plants' were set up by American corporations to avoid Canadian tariff laws.


2 5 the growth of big business foreign investment and unions2

2.5 The Growth of Big Business, Foreign Investment and Unions

  • The Growth of Unions

    • In huge factories, workers did not often know who owned the facilities. Most hardly knew each other.

    • Unions were groups of workers formed to bargain with owners over wages, benefits and working conditions. If this failed, the whole union could go on strike.


2 5 the growth of big business foreign investment and unions3

2.5 The Growth of Big Business, Foreign Investment and Unions

  • Child Labour

    • Children were popular workers with owners because they didn't have to be paid as much as adults.

    • Unions fought against child labour, but this was partly to save jobs for adults.

    • Child labour laws were passed, but the number of children working in factories actually increased from 1900- 1910.


2 5 the growth of big business foreign investment and unions4

2.5 The Growth of Big Business, Foreign Investment and Unions

  • Section Questions - page 40

  • #2,3,4, 5,6


2 6 inequality intolerance and racism

2.6 Inequality, Intolerance and Racism

  • The New Urban Poor

    • As workers moved to areas near factories, the need for housing outgrew the supply.

    • People were forced to live in cramped, unhealthy conditions. One in four babies died before its first birthday.

    • Governments wouldn’t help the urban poor much; this was left to churches and charities.


2 6 inequality intolerance and racism1

2.6 Inequality, Intolerance and Racism

  • Changing Lives for Native Peoples

    • More and more First Nations people were being forced onto reserves and were assimilated into the mainstream culture.

    • Churches believed that they had to “save” the First Nations people by educating them in far-away residential schools.

    • Children were sent to the schools and were not allowed to speak their language or practice their culture. Some were abused.

    • The Canadian Government made an official apology to the First Nations recently (summer 2007) and offered them compensation packages.


2 6 inequality intolerance and racism2

2.6 Inequality, Intolerance and Racism

  • Intolerance and Racism

    • All immigrants were sometimes treated poorly (mistrust, exclusion, violence), but non English-speaking ones had it worse:

      • The government officially blocked Black immigrants from settling out west.

      • Asian immigrants had a $500 head tax placed on them to enter Canada.

      • Race riots sometimes broke out in attempts to “keep Canada white”.


2 6 inequality intolerance and racism3

2.6 Inequality, Intolerance and Racism

  • Section Questions - page 44

    • #4,5,6,8


2 7 women in the early 20th century

2.7 Women in the Early 20th Century

  • Women could work, but only if they were unmarried.

  • Jobs required low skill levels; servants, factory workers, office workers,…

  • By 1914, 21% of Canadian workers were women…but they were paid less than men for the same jobs.

Grafting ... a factory snap dating from 1900 of women in the jewellery industryhttp://www.thesun.co.uk/sol/homepage/news/article1524561.ece

Sandy Trebick with chickens.

Saskatchewan Archives Board R-A20815

http://www.earlyofficemuseum.com/photo_gallery_1900s_iii.htm


2 7 women in the early 20th century1

2.7 Women in the Early 20th Century

  • Women organize

    • Women’s Christian Temperance Union

    • National Council of the Women of Canada

    • These groups were formed to better the lives of women, children, workers and the poor

  • Women’s Suffrage

    • Women’s groups also lobbied for the right to vote

    • Dr. Emily Howard Stowe, Canada’s first female doctor, helped organize the first Canadian suffrage group


2 8 canada britain and the empire p 48

2.8 Canada, Britain and the Empire (p.48)

  • At the beginning of the 20th century, Canada’s defence and external affairs were still controlled by Britain

  • The attachment many Canadians felt towards Britain caused problems between English and French-speaking Canadians…especially during the Boer War

The Red Ensign, Canada’s original flag

British Parliament Buildings, London


2 8 canada britain and the empire

2.8 Canada, Britain and the Empire

  • The South African War, 1899-1902 (p.49)

    • Prime Minister Laurier did not send the Canadian Army to South Africa

    • Instead, he allowed Canadians to volunteer to serve in the British Army

    • Canadians served well in the war, with a reputation as tough, brave, resourceful soldiers

Boer guerilla fighters

http://www.south-africa-tours-and-travel.com/images/boer-guerrilla-commandos-boerwar.jpg

Canadians on the veldt in South Africa

http://www.warmuseum.ca/cwm/exhibitions/boer/boerwarhistory_e.shtml


2 8 canada britain and the empire1

2.8 Canada, Britain and the Empire

  • French-English Relations and the South African War (p.50)

    • English-speaking Canadians were enthusiastic about the Boer War and didn’t like Laurier’s response to it

    • French-speaking Canadians did not care about the war, and wanted to concentrate on building a strong Canada, independent from Britain


2 8 canada britain and the empire2

2.8 Canada, Britain and the Empire

  • The Naval Issue (p.51)

    • Britain and Germany were involved in a naval arms race and Canada was expected to contribute financially

    • Laurier’s compromise was to introduce the Naval Service Bill in 1910, in which Canada did not contribute to Britain but instead created its own navy

    • This annoyed both English and French-speaking Canadians


2 9 canada and the united states

2.9 Canada and the United States

  • Canadian-American Relations in the Early 20th Century

    • As a result of fishing and sealing disputes and fears over American Imperialism, Canadian-American relations were tense.

    • If the Americans had invaded, they would have found little resistance. Canada had only a militia to fight with.


2 9 canada and the united states1

2.9 Canada and the United States

  • The Alaskan Boundary Dispute:

    • The U.S. bought Alaska from Russia in 1867, but the Canadian-Alaskan border was unclear.

    • The Yukon Gold Rush of 1898 brought the issue to the forefront as thousands of miners entered the area.


2 9 canada and the united states2

2.9 Canada and the United States

  • The Alaskan Boundary Dispute

    • The dispute centered on where the southern border was; did it follow the coastline (Canadian claim) or the inlets (American claim)?

    • A 6-person tribunal made up of 3 Americans, 2 Canadians and a Briton met in 1903 to settle the issue.

    • The results favoured the Americans because the British representative sided with the U.S. . Many Canadians felt betrayed by the British government.


2 9 canada and the united states3

2.9 Canada and the United States

  • Signs of Improved Relations:

    • By 1909, suspicions of the Americans were fading with the establishment of the International Joint Commission, which signed the Boundary Waters Treaty.

    • This commission was set up to resolve any more disputes over shared border waters. It still exists today.


2 9 canada and the united states4

2.9 Canada and the United States

  • Reciprocity and the 1911 Election

  • (Reciprocity=free trade between Canada & the U.S.)

    • It existed from 1854-1866, but Macdonald’s National Policy stopped it.

    • Reciprocity resurfaced with Laurier in 1910-1911, with many supporting and opposing viewpoints:

      • For: more markets for Canadian goods

      • Against: it would close Canadian industries; annexation by the U.S.

    • It became a major federal election issue in 1911, when Laurier’s Liberals were defeated by Borden’s Conservatives.


  • Login