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Canadian History 1201 Chapter 2 . Entering a New Century 1900-1914. 2.1 Canada: Land of Opportunity. Emigrant: someone who leaves their home country Immigrant: someone who comes into a new country. 2.2: Railways and the Expansion of Canada. The Railway Boom

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canadian history 1201 chapter 2

Canadian History 1201Chapter 2

Entering a New Century

1900-1914

2 1 canada land of opportunity
2.1 Canada: Land of Opportunity
  • Emigrant: someone who leaves their homecountry
  • Immigrant: someone who comes into a new country
2 2 railways and the expansion of canada
2.2: Railways and the Expansion of Canada
  • The Railway Boom
    • The Canadian Pacific Railway (CPR), built in the late 1800s, carried settlers, workers and finished products to the West and grain to the East.
    • The CPR wasn\'t adequate, so the Federal Government gave subsidies for two additional rail lines to the Grand Trunk Railway Co. and the Canadian Northern Railway.
2 2 railways and the expansion of canada1
2.2: Railways and the Expansion of Canada
  • Patterns of Settlement and Development
    • Many towns grew up around rail lines, stations and grain elevators.
2 3 the changing face of canada
2.3 The Changing Face of Canada
  • The Roots of Multiculturalism
    • Multiculturalism had its roots in the early 1900s.
    • Place names (Esterhazy) and building styles (onion-domed Orthodox churches) reflected the ethnic background of the people living in an area
2 3 the changing face of canada1
2.3 The Changing Face of Canada
  • Growth of Cities
    • Canada\'s urban population increased a lot in the early 1900s.
    • People were looking for work in factories, and as a city\'s population grew, more jobs were created to build and maintain it.
    • Electric lights and streetcars were new inventions which helped city dwellers.
2 3 the changing face of canada2
2.3 The Changing Face of Canada
  • New Provinces
    • In 1905, the Provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan were added to Canada. Previously, they were part of the Northwest Territories
    • In 1912, Manitoba, Ontario and Quebec expanded their borders to form their present shapes.
2 4 a changing economy
2.4 A Changing Economy
  • Capitalist System:
    • Capitalists invest inbusinesses. They make all business decisions based on consumer demands. This was new in the 20th century.
    • As a result of capitalism, a mass consumer culture developed. Mass-produced factory products were bought by consumers.
2 4 a changing economy1
2.4 A Changing Economy
  • Industrial Growth: Primary Industries
    • Canada began exporting huge amounts of natural resources like wheat, minerals, paper and lumber in the early 20th century
2 4 a changing economy2
2.4 A Changing Economy
  • Industrial Growth: Secondary Industries
    • Prior to 1900, most of Canada\'s wealthdepended on primary industries. Not so anymore; factories made a huge array of consumer products, from brooms to cars.
2 4 a changing economy3
2.4 A Changing Economy
  • Industrial Growth: Tertiary Industries
    • The service industry (transportation, finance, utilities,...) expanded along with the other two industries. By the 1920s, it was the largest industry sector.
2 4 a changing economy4
2.4 A Changing Economy
  • Foreign Trade:
    • John A. Macdonald\'s \'national policy\' placed tariffs on imported manufactured goods. The idea was to make Canadian-made goods competitive.
    • Canada still relied on primary exports in the export trade, and new technologies made the country more efficient in these areas.
2 4 a changing economy5
2.4 A Changing Economy
  • Technology and the Industrial Boom:
    • New technologies (esp. electricity) made industries more efficient, but often made humans redundant.
    • This allowed mass production of goods for the first time in Canada.
    • Mass media (newspapers, magazines, books) was brought on by the large-scale mechanization of the printing industry.
2 4 a changing economy6
2.4 A Changing Economy
  • Section Questions-page 35
    • #1,2,3,4
2 5 the growth of big business foreign investment and unions
2.5 The Growth of Big Business, Foreign Investment and Unions
  • Big Business
    • Business owners found that the bigger the factory, the cheaper you could make things and the more people would buy them.
    • Corporations were new in the 1900s.They were formed by alliances between bankers, financers and industrialists.
    • Department stores and catalogue shopping were new options for consumers.
2 5 the growth of big business foreign investment and unions1
2.5 The Growth of Big Business, Foreign Investment and Unions
  • Foreign Investment
    • Foreign investment was nothing new in Canada, but the Americans began investing heavily in such industries as pulp and paper mills.
    • \'Branch plants\' were set up by American corporations to avoid Canadian tariff laws.
2 5 the growth of big business foreign investment and unions2
2.5 The Growth of Big Business, Foreign Investment and Unions
  • The Growth of Unions
    • In huge factories, workers did not often know who owned the facilities. Most hardly knew each other.
    • Unions were groups of workers formed to bargain with owners over wages, benefits and working conditions. If this failed, the whole union could go on strike.
2 5 the growth of big business foreign investment and unions3
2.5 The Growth of Big Business, Foreign Investment and Unions
  • Child Labour
    • Children were popular workers with owners because they didn\'t have to be paid as much as adults.
    • Unions fought against child labour, but this was partly to save jobs for adults.
    • Child labour laws were passed, but the number of children working in factories actually increased from 1900- 1910.
2 5 the growth of big business foreign investment and unions4
2.5 The Growth of Big Business, Foreign Investment and Unions
  • Section Questions - page 40
  • #2,3,4, 5,6
2 6 inequality intolerance and racism
2.6 Inequality, Intolerance and Racism
  • The New Urban Poor
    • As workers moved to areas near factories, the need for housing outgrew the supply.
    • People were forced to live in cramped, unhealthy conditions. One in four babies died before its first birthday.
    • Governments wouldn’t help the urban poor much; this was left to churches and charities.
2 6 inequality intolerance and racism1
2.6 Inequality, Intolerance and Racism
  • Changing Lives for Native Peoples
    • More and more First Nations people were being forced onto reserves and were assimilated into the mainstream culture.
    • Churches believed that they had to “save” the First Nations people by educating them in far-away residential schools.
    • Children were sent to the schools and were not allowed to speak their language or practice their culture. Some were abused.
    • The Canadian Government made an official apology to the First Nations recently (summer 2007) and offered them compensation packages.
2 6 inequality intolerance and racism2
2.6 Inequality, Intolerance and Racism
  • Intolerance and Racism
    • All immigrants were sometimes treated poorly (mistrust, exclusion, violence), but non English-speaking ones had it worse:
      • The government officially blocked Black immigrants from settling out west.
      • Asian immigrants had a $500 head tax placed on them to enter Canada.
      • Race riots sometimes broke out in attempts to “keep Canada white”.
2 6 inequality intolerance and racism3
2.6 Inequality, Intolerance and Racism
  • Section Questions - page 44
    • #4,5,6,8
2 7 women in the early 20th century
2.7 Women in the Early 20th Century
  • Women could work, but only if they were unmarried.
  • Jobs required low skill levels; servants, factory workers, office workers,…
  • By 1914, 21% of Canadian workers were women…but they were paid less than men for the same jobs.

Grafting ... a factory snap dating from 1900 of women in the jewellery industryhttp://www.thesun.co.uk/sol/homepage/news/article1524561.ece

Sandy Trebick with chickens.

Saskatchewan Archives Board R-A20815

http://www.earlyofficemuseum.com/photo_gallery_1900s_iii.htm

2 7 women in the early 20th century1
2.7 Women in the Early 20th Century
  • Women organize
    • Women’s Christian Temperance Union
    • National Council of the Women of Canada
    • These groups were formed to better the lives of women, children, workers and the poor
  • Women’s Suffrage
    • Women’s groups also lobbied for the right to vote
    • Dr. Emily Howard Stowe, Canada’s first female doctor, helped organize the first Canadian suffrage group
2 8 canada britain and the empire p 48
2.8 Canada, Britain and the Empire (p.48)
  • At the beginning of the 20th century, Canada’s defence and external affairs were still controlled by Britain
  • The attachment many Canadians felt towards Britain caused problems between English and French-speaking Canadians…especially during the Boer War

The Red Ensign, Canada’s original flag

British Parliament Buildings, London

2 8 canada britain and the empire
2.8 Canada, Britain and the Empire
  • The South African War, 1899-1902 (p.49)
    • Prime Minister Laurier did not send the Canadian Army to South Africa
    • Instead, he allowed Canadians to volunteer to serve in the British Army
    • Canadians served well in the war, with a reputation as tough, brave, resourceful soldiers

Boer guerilla fighters

http://www.south-africa-tours-and-travel.com/images/boer-guerrilla-commandos-boerwar.jpg

Canadians on the veldt in South Africa

http://www.warmuseum.ca/cwm/exhibitions/boer/boerwarhistory_e.shtml

2 8 canada britain and the empire1
2.8 Canada, Britain and the Empire
  • French-English Relations and the South African War (p.50)
    • English-speaking Canadians were enthusiastic about the Boer War and didn’t like Laurier’s response to it
    • French-speaking Canadians did not care about the war, and wanted to concentrate on building a strong Canada, independent from Britain
2 8 canada britain and the empire2
2.8 Canada, Britain and the Empire
  • The Naval Issue (p.51)
    • Britain and Germany were involved in a naval arms race and Canada was expected to contribute financially
    • Laurier’s compromise was to introduce the Naval Service Bill in 1910, in which Canada did not contribute to Britain but instead created its own navy
    • This annoyed both English and French-speaking Canadians
2 9 canada and the united states
2.9 Canada and the United States
  • Canadian-American Relations in the Early 20th Century
    • As a result of fishing and sealing disputes and fears over American Imperialism, Canadian-American relations were tense.
    • If the Americans had invaded, they would have found little resistance. Canada had only a militia to fight with.
2 9 canada and the united states1
2.9 Canada and the United States
  • The Alaskan Boundary Dispute:
    • The U.S. bought Alaska from Russia in 1867, but the Canadian-Alaskan border was unclear.
    • The Yukon Gold Rush of 1898 brought the issue to the forefront as thousands of miners entered the area.
2 9 canada and the united states2
2.9 Canada and the United States
  • The Alaskan Boundary Dispute
    • The dispute centered on where the southern border was; did it follow the coastline (Canadian claim) or the inlets (American claim)?
    • A 6-person tribunal made up of 3 Americans, 2 Canadians and a Briton met in 1903 to settle the issue.
    • The results favoured the Americans because the British representative sided with the U.S. . Many Canadians felt betrayed by the British government.
2 9 canada and the united states3
2.9 Canada and the United States
  • Signs of Improved Relations:
    • By 1909, suspicions of the Americans were fading with the establishment of the International Joint Commission, which signed the Boundary Waters Treaty.
    • This commission was set up to resolve any more disputes over shared border waters. It still exists today.
2 9 canada and the united states4
2.9 Canada and the United States
  • Reciprocity and the 1911 Election
  • (Reciprocity=free trade between Canada & the U.S.)
    • It existed from 1854-1866, but Macdonald’s National Policy stopped it.
    • Reciprocity resurfaced with Laurier in 1910-1911, with many supporting and opposing viewpoints:
      • For: more markets for Canadian goods
      • Against: it would close Canadian industries; annexation by the U.S.
    • It became a major federal election issue in 1911, when Laurier’s Liberals were defeated by Borden’s Conservatives.
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