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COUNTRY REPORT. ON ACCELERATING PROGRESS ON GIRLS’ EDUCATION in BANGLADESH . Fourth Meeting of the Working Group on Education For All, Paris, 22-23 July 2003. Kazi Farid Ahammed Joint Secretary, Development Ministry of Primary & Mass Education Bangladesh. Presented by -. 1. Background.

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Fourth Meeting of the Working Group on Education For All, Paris, 22-23 July 2003

Kazi Farid Ahammed

Joint Secretary, Development

Ministry of Primary & Mass Education


Presented by -

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1. Background

1971: On liberation of Bangladesh, literacy rate was 18 % with the female literacy rate of 11 % 1972: Constitution promulgated to ensure:

  • Basic Human Rights to all citizen

  • Equity, equality & parity

  • Government’s obligation to adopt

  • effective measures for:

1) Establishing a uniform, mass-oriented and universal system for free compulsory basic education

2)Relating education to the needs of the society and producing properly trained and motivated citizens to serve those needs; and

3)Eradicating illiteracy

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1973: - Nationalization of 36,165 primary schools &

- Declaration of 157,724 teachers as governmental employee

1974: - Enactment of the Primary Education Act

- Accepted recommendations of BEC Report which stressed Girls’ education

- Setting up adult education program (11-45 aged group) through GOB & NGOs

1990: - Enactment of the Compulsory Primary Education Law

- Adoption of the Declaration of the EFA as a signatory

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2. Major achievements since 1973:

  • First Five Year Plan (FYP) (1973-78)

  • -Girls enrollment: 2.7m (1973) – 3m (1978)

  • Short Plan (1978-80)

  • -Literacy program for out-of-school children and

  • illiterate adults with focus on girls and women

  • Second FYP (1980-85)

  • -Promotion of girls education through:

  • a) Establishment of the Directorate of Primary

  • Education in 1982

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  • b) Free distribution of uniform in primary school

  • c) Creation of 500 posts for female teachers

  • d) Completion of school mapping

  • e) Creation of more infrastructural facility (e.g. 11,274 classrooms crated, 9,421 schools repaired, 6,242 tube well installed, 5,745 toilets constructed)

  • f) Creation of about 2,000 posts of Assistant Upazila Education Officers to supervise and inspect primary schools

  • Third FYP (1985-90)

  • - Free distribution of textbooks in primary schools

  • -Renewal of curricula and syllabuses

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  • -Further development of physical infrastructure

  • - Appointment of more teachers with focus on female teachers

  • Fourth FYP (1990-95)

  • - Created separated Primary and Mass Education Division (PMED) in 1992

  • - National Action of Plan (NPA-1) Finalized, adopted and followed

  • - Initiation of the Food for Education project

  • - Introduction of secondary stipend program for 100% girl

  • children

  • Fifth FYP (1995-2000)

  • - Primary Education Development Plan (PEDP –1): MACRO Plan finalized

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3. Major achievements in Primary Education (1990 – 2002)

  • % of Female teachers rose from 20% to 38%

  • % of girl students increased to nearly 50%

  • Total dropout rate lowered from 60% to 33%

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4. Analysis and challenges

  • Access and attendance improved and exceeded the national targets

  • Overall improvement in Primary GER and literacy rate for boys and girls, yet disparities remain in favour of boys in general (e.g. Youth literacy rate in 2000: 56.7% for boys, 39.7% for girls)

  • Primary and mass education is given 50% of the national

  • budget out of the entire budget in education sector

  • At secondary school, enrollment rate of girls is higher than that of boys in 1999/2000. (EFA Global Monitoring Report)

  • Public current expenditure on Primary Education as % of GNP: 0.61% in 1999/2000 (EFA Global Monitoring Report)

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5. Main innovative GOB&NGOs programmes:

a)Dhaka Ahsania Mission : Alternative Primary School Program : Offers 27 months course assorted in 3 grades of 9 months each. Target group is 8-10 year old.

b)UCEP School : For under-privileged children of the age group 6-14 years. Duration is 7 years consisting both general and technical education.

c)Proshika NFE Program : For 8-11 years old children 3 year course equivalent to 5 years formal primary claimed.

d)The BRAC : Two types of NFE program. One is a 3 year NFE schools for 8-11 years old children and 2 year adolescent schools for 11-14 years old.

e)GOB : Stipend program for poor children, stipend program for all girls’ in HSS, PLCEHD Projects, CEC, URC, ETC.

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6.Future plans to reach EFA Goals through DFA to attain gender equality

  • To introduce “baby class” to primary school with one additional teacher for ECCE.

  • To promote a holistic approach for both formal and non-formal education by linking to other sectors such as health, nutrition, water and sanitation and poverty reduction.

  • To strengthen C-in-Education program by updating its curricula and modules

  • To enhance capacity of the Upazila educational personnel and Upazila Resource Centers (URC)

  • To increase capacity of the National Academy for Primary Education and National Curriculum and Text Board

  • Creation of more schools and classrooms

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7) Ensuring the smooth implementation of stipend program for

40% poor primary children and that for secondary education

(???) for ensuring 85% attendance

8) To sustain the policy of employing 60% of female teachers

at primary schools

9) Enhancement of non-formal education for basic literacy and

PLCE to be more relevant to job market demands and

economic development

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Thank you All

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